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Growth hormone – You and Your Hormones

Dec 30th, 2018
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Alternative names for growth hormone

Somatotropin; GH; human growth hormone; HGH

Growth hormone is released into the bloodstream from the anterior pituitary gland.The pituitary gland also produces other hormones that have different functions from growth hormone.

Growth hormone acts on many parts of the body to promote growth in children.Once the growth plates in the bones (epiphyses) have fused growth hormone does not increase height. In adults, it does not cause growth but it helps to maintain normal body structure and metabolism, including helping to keep blood glucose levels within set levels.

Growth hormone release is not continuous; it is released in a number of bursts or pulses every three to five hours.This release is controlled by two other hormones that are released from the hypothalamus (a part of the brain): growth hormone-releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary to release growth hormone, and somatostatin, which inhibits that release.

Growth hormone levels are increased by sleep, stress, exercise and low glucose levels in the blood. They also increase around the time of puberty. Growth hormone release is lowered in pregnancy and if the brain senses high levels of growth hormone or insulin-like growth factors already in the blood.

Not surprisingly, too much growth hormone causes too much growth.

In adults, excessive growth hormone for a long period of time produces a condition known as acromegaly, in which patients have swelling of the hands and feet and altered facial features. These patients also have organ enlargement and serious functional disorders such as high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.Over 99% of cases are due to benign tumours of the pituitary gland, which produce growth hormone.This condition is more common after middle-age when growth is complete so affected individuals do not get any taller.

Very rarely,increased growth hormone levels can occur in children before they reach their final height, whichcan lead to excessive growth of long bones, resulting in the child being abnormally tall. This is commonly known as gigantism (a very large increase in height).

Overproduction of growth hormone is diagnosed by giving a sugary drink and measuring the growth hormone level over the next few hours. The sugar should cause growth hormone production to reduce. However, this does not happen in acromegaly.

Too little growth hormone (deficiency) results in poor growth in children. In adults, it causes a reduced sense of wellbeing, increased fat, increased risk of heart disease and weak heart, muscles and bones.The condition may be present from birth where the cause can be unknown, genetic or due to injury to the pituitary gland (during development or at birth).

Growth hormone deficiency may also develop in adults due to brain injury, a pituitary tumouror damage to the pituitary gland (for example, after brain surgery or radiotherapy for cancer treatment).The main treatment is to replace the growth hormone using injections – either once a day or several times a week.

In the past, growth hormone treatment was stopped at the end of growth. It is now clear that growth hormone contributes to both bone mass and muscle mass reaching the best possible level, as well as reducing fat mass during development to an adult. The specialist is therefore likely to discuss the benefits of continuing growth hormone after growth has completed until age 25 to make sure bone and muscle mass reach the best possible level. Additionally, growth hormone has been linked to a sensation of wellbeing, specifically energy levels. There is evidence that 30-50% of adults with growth hormone deficiency feel tired to a level that impairs their wellbeing. These adults may benefit from lifelong treatment with growth hormone. Taking growth hormone when adult will not result in increased height.

Last reviewed: Feb 2018

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Global Human Growth Hormone Market 2018-2022 | Increased …

Dec 30th, 2018
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LONDON–(BUSINESS WIRE)–The global human growth hormone market is expected to post a CAGR of close to 4% during the period 2018-2022, according to the latest market research report by Technavio.

A key factor driving the growth of the global human growth hormone market is the FDA approval of human growth hormone replacement therapy for new indications. Nearly 80% of children with Noonan syndrome have short statures. At present, somatropin injection is the only growth hormone therapy approved for treating short stature in children with Noonan syndrome. Therefore, receiving the FDA approval for human growth hormone for new indications is expected to increase the awareness of the diagnosis. Also, many medical practitioners are expected to use growth hormone therapy in patients with Noonan syndrome.

This market research report on the global human growth hormone market 2018-2022 also provides an analysis of the most important trends expected to impact the market outlook during the forecast period.

This report is available at a USD 1,000 discount for a limited time only: View market snapshot before purchasing

Global human growth hormone market: Increasing incidence of growth disorders

The increasing incidence of growth hormone disorders owing to the deficiency of growth hormone is likely to boost the global human growth hormone market during the forecast period. Moreover, various indications fall under the growth hormone disorders such as Laron syndrome, short stature, Turner syndrome, growth hormone deficiency, acromegaly, septo-optic dysplasia, gigantism, ISS, and Noonan syndrome.

Moreover, there is no impact of biosimilar entry in the human growth hormone market due to various factors such as safety and efficacy as well the quality of regulatory decision-making.

Along with FDA approval of human growth hormone replacement therapy for new indications, the development of long-acting and needle-free deliveries to improve adherence and a strong pipeline of human growth hormone are expected to positively impact the growth of the global human growth hormone market during the forecast period, says a senior analyst at Technavio

Global human growth hormone market: Segmentation analysis

This market research report segments the global human growth hormone market by application (growth hormone deficiency, ISS, Turner syndrome, and PWS) and geographical regions (APAC, EMEA, and the Americas).

The Americas region led the market in 2017 with a market share of over 57%, followed by EMEA and APAC respectively. The Americas region will continue to dominate the market with the highest incremental growth during the forecast period.

Looking for more information on this market? Request a free sample report

Technavios sample reports are free of charge and contain multiple sections of the report such as the market size and forecast, drivers, challenges, trends, and more.

Some of the key topics covered in the report include:

Market Landscape

Market Sizing

Five Forces Analysis

Market Segmentation

Geographical Segmentation

Market Drivers

Market Challenges

Market Trends

Vendor Landscape

About Technavio

Technavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. Their research and analysis focuses on emerging market trends and provides actionable insights to help businesses identify market opportunities and develop effective strategies to optimize their market positions.

With over 500 specialized analysts, Technavios report library consists of more than 10,000 reports and counting, covering 800 technologies, spanning across 50 countries. Their client base consists of enterprises of all sizes, including more than 100 Fortune 500 companies. This growing client base relies on Technavios comprehensive coverage, extensive research, and actionable market insights to identify opportunities in existing and potential markets and assess their competitive positions within changing market scenarios.

If you are interested in more information, please contact our media team at media@technavio.com.

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Human growth hormone (hGH) | Peak Performance

Dec 30th, 2018
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Dont waste money and risk your reputation on human growth hormone; make your own instead!

Drugs continue to be rife in sport, despite the associated risks to health, career and reputation, their use encouraged by designer modifications that make them more and more difficult to detect.

One group of drugs with large ergogenic effects which continue to pose difficulties in detection are the peptide hormones, incuding EPO, IGF-1 and growth hormone. According to one press report of the time, an empty phial of growth hormone was found in a changing room at the Barcelona Olympics in 1992, fuelling a great amount of speculation on just how widespread this form of drug abuse might be.

In fact, today recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) may well be the drug of choice across a range of sports, from sprinting and other explosive activities to endurance performance. A number of efforts have been made to find a means of catching those who abuse the drug, but even after almost eight years of funding we appear to be no closer to producing a reliable test.

What many athletes and coaches have failed to understand, however, is that athletes can employ specific training regimens and dietary strategies to optimise their natural secretion of human growth hormone (hGH), so inducing those very adaptations to training that others are cheating to achieve.

Human growth hormone is produced in the anterior portion of the pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ suspended just below the brain, which produces no fewer than nine different hormones. Between them these hormones regulate a number of essential physiological functions, including water and energy balance, reproductive activity and the workings of many other glands in the body.

As its name suggests, growth hormone has largely been associated with the function of growth. For centuries scientists believed that puberty was a cut-off point, with human growth hormone (hGH) playing no part in growth or any other function after that. Recent evidence suggests, however, that human growth hormone (hGH) is involved in many physiological processes throughout life, including the turnover of muscle, bone and collagen, the regulation of fat metabolism and the maintenance of a healthier body composition in later life.

A relatively recent discovery is the existence of growth hormone deficiency in adults (GHDA), which has shed further light on the function of this busy little hormone. People with GHDA have a relatively low muscle mass and high body fat, creating a tendency to obesity, an increased risk of heart disease and a greatly reduced exercsie capacity. Treatment of this condition usually requires regular injections of growth hormone.

In general, human growth hormone (hGH) secretion follows a circadian rhythm and is secreted in 6-12 discrete pulses per day, with the largest pulse secreted about an hour after the onset of night-time sleep (around midnight for most people). The release and inhibition of human growth hormone (hGH) are governed by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)) and somatostatin. Growth hormone secretion can be triggered by a number of natural stimuli, the most powerful of which are sleep and exercsie.

The fact that exercise acts as a major stimulus for the natural secretion of human growth hormone (hGH) is well known, but there is still little evidence to suggest how this might happen. Various researchers have suggested that it could be triggered by exercise-induced increases in adrenaline, nitric oxide, blood lactate, acidity or nerve activity, either individually or together.

Today there is little doubt that optimising secretion of natural human growth hormone (hGH) is beneficial to sportsmen and women, with none of the many risks associated with hormone abuse, including joint pain, arthritis, abnormal heart growth, muscle weakness, increased blood fats, impaired glucose regulation, diabetes, impotence and, of course, the consequences of breaking the law!

Diet, exercise and sleep patterns all play a role in human growth hormone (hGH) secretion. Since the largest human growth hormone (hGH) surge in a normal day tends to occur around one hour after the onset of night-time sleep, it is vital for athletes to get plenty of it. If the quality of sleep is inadequate there will be a reduction in the volume of human growth hormone (hGH) secreted, with negative consequences for health and fitness. Important preconditions for good quality sleep and optimal human growth hormone (hGH) secretion during sleep include a dark room and a balanced diet containing adequate protein(1). Of course, an adequate quantity of sleep is also required for good health generally, and for most people this means around eight hours.

High-carb diets may be appropriate in many situations but, since hyperglycaemia (elevated blood carbohydrate) tends to switch off human growth hormone (hGH) secretion, this strategy may not be appropriate where optimal adaptation is the priority. Fat taken before exercise has also been found to reduce human growth hormone (hGH) secretion (2).

It is hard to argue against the use of carbohydrate immediately after training in the few days leading up to a competition, when it is important to ensure that carbohydrate stores in the muscles are fully repleted. However, this is not the best strategy for maintaining the release of human growth hormone (hGH) after exercise, particularly if the carbs have a high glycaemic index, as these (sugary) foods stimulate insulin secretion which, in turn, contributes to a reduction in human growth hormone (hGH) (3).

It is also important to drink plenty of water during training, as dehydration has been shown to significantly reduce the exercise-induced human growth hormone (hGH) response (4).

As far as supplementation before exercise is concerned, it has been shown that ingestion of 1.5g of arginine will increase human growth hormone (hGH) secretion by blocking release of the hGH-inhibitor somatostatin, although some studies have suggested this causes gastric disturbance(5). However, 2g of glutamine will lead to elevation of human growth hormone (hGH) 90 minutes later without side effects (6). It may also be a good idea to ingest some amino acids after exercise, as this has been shown to enhance human growth hormone (hGH) secretion too (7).

In terms of training, research has shown that to achieve an elevation of human growth hormone (hGH) above baseline you need to spend at least 10 minutes training at above lactate threshold intensity (8)This results in the biggest volume of human growth hormone (hGH) secreted in response to a single exercise bout, with levels of the hormone declining gradually over a period of an hour. It is also known that multiple daily sessions can give rise to optimal human growth hormone (hGH) secretion over a 24-hour period.

One study investigating the effects of three exercise sessions a day with either 1.5 or three-hour recovery periods between them found that the longer recoveries led to the greatest volume of 24-hour human growth hormone (hGH) secretion (9). Another showed an even larger human growth hormone (hGH) peak in response to sprints on an exercise bike (10).

In the light of the above-mentioned research and current recommendations for both diet and exercise, it might be a good idea to think about periodising diet in a similar way to training. During periods of training, when we are trying to increase muscle mass, minimise body fat and maximise the adaptive response to training, it would seem logical to adopt an hGH-enhancing approach, reverting to a high-carb diet before and during competition.

In summary, then, exercise above lactate threshold induces the secretion of human growth hormone (hGH), promoting the use of fat as fuel. This, in turn, spares muscle carbohydrate, keeps body fat down and muscle mass high and enhances adaptation to specific exercise stimuli. The benefits are clear, but simply switching to high intensity work for the whole year is not the answer; rather, a periodised programme, where the number of sprints or higher intensity workouts alters according to the competitive programme, is the best way forward.

A suggested exercise and dietary strategy for optimising human growth hormone (hGH) secretion is as follows:

Richard Godfrey

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Sermorelin (Injection Route) Before Using – Mayo Clinic

Dec 29th, 2018
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Drug information provided by: Micromedex

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. Tell your healthcare professional if you are taking any other prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicine.

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

Portions of this document last updated: Oct. 01, 2018

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Testosterone | You and Your Hormones from the Society for …

Dec 28th, 2018
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Alternative names for testosterone

Testo (brand name for testosterone formulations); 4-androsten-17-ol-3-one

Testosterone is produced by the gonads (by the Leydig cells in testes in men and by the ovaries in women), although small quantities are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes.It is an androgen, meaning that it stimulates the development of male characteristics.

Present in much greater levels in men than women, testosterone initiates the development of the male internal and external reproductive organs during foetal development and is essential for the production of sperm in adult life.This hormone also signals the body to make new blood cells, ensures that muscles and bones stay strong during and after puberty and enhances libido both in men and women.Testosterone is linked to many of the changes seen in boys during puberty (including an increase in height, body and pubic hair growth, enlargement of the penis, testes and prostate gland, and changes in sexual and aggressive behaviour).It also regulates the secretion of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.To effect these changes, testosterone is often converted into another androgen called dihydrotestosterone.

In women, testosterone is produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands.The majority of testosterone produced in the ovary is converted to the principle female sex hormone, oestradiol.

The regulation of testosterone production is tightly controlled to maintain normal levels in blood, although levels are usually highest in the morning and fall after that.The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are important in controlling the amount of testosterone produced by the testes.In response to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland produces luteinising hormone which travels in the bloodstream to the gonads and stimulates the production and release of testosterone.

As blood levels of testosterone increase, this feeds back to suppress the production of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus which, in turn, suppresses production of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Levels of testosterone begin to fall as a result, so negative feedback decreases and the hypothalamus resumes secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.

The effect excess testosterone has on the body depends on both age and sex. It is unlikely that adult men will develop a disorder in which they produce too much testosterone and it is often difficult to spot that an adult male has too much testosterone.More obviously, young children with too much testosterone may enter a false growth spurt and show signs of early puberty and young girls may experience abnormal changes to their genitalia. In both males and females, too much testosterone can lead to precocious puberty and result in infertility.

In women, high blood levels of testosterone may also be an indicator of polycystic ovary syndrome.Women with this condition may notice increased acne, body and facial hair (called hirsutism), balding at the front of the hairline, increased muscle bulk and a deepening voice.

There are also several conditions that cause the body to produce too much testosterone.These include androgen resistance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and ovarian cancer.

The use of anabolic steroids (manufactured androgenic hormones) shuts down the release of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone secretion from the pituitary gland, which in turn decreases the amount of testosterone and sperm produced within the testes. In men, prolonged exposure to anabolic steroids results in infertility, a decreased sex drive, shrinking of the testes and breast development. Liver damage may result from its prolonged attempts to detoxify the anabolic steroids.Behavioural changes (such as increased irritability) may also be observed.Undesirable reactions also occur in women who take anabolic steroids regularly, as a high concentration of testosterone, either natural or manufactured, can cause masculinisation (virilisation) of women.

If testosterone deficiency occurs during fetal development, then male characteristics may not completely develop. If testosterone deficiency occurs during puberty, a boys growth may slow and no growth spurt will be seen.The child may have reduced development of pubic hair, growth of the penis and testes, and deepening of the voice. Around the time of puberty, boys with too little testosterone may also have less than normal strength and endurance, and their arms and legs may continue to grow out of proportion with the rest of their body.

In adult men, low testosterone may lead to a reduction in muscle bulk, loss of body hair and a wrinkled parchment-like appearance of the skin. Testosterone levels in men decline naturally as they age. In the media, this is sometimes referred to as the male menopause (andropause).

Low testosterone levels can cause mood disturbances, increased body fat, loss of muscle tone, inadequate erections and poor sexual performance, osteoporosis, difficulty with concentration, memory loss and sleep difficulties. Current research suggests that this effect occurs in only a minority (about 2%) of ageing men.However, there is a lot of research currently in progress to find out more about the effects of testosterone in older men and also whether the use of testosterone replacement therapy would have any benefits.

Last reviewed: Feb 2018

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hCG Weight Loss Atlanta | 404-968-9642 | Medically …

Dec 25th, 2018
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Our clients lose as much as one pound a day.

If every other diet has failed you, then youre at the right place. If this is your first diet experience, and youre comparing diets to see which is best for you, then youre at the right place. The hCG diet works. Weve used it with hundreds of clients who look and feel like new people. Our program is different from all others because we offer additional levels of support, including personal training options and freshly prepared meals designed by us to maximize your success. Even our most basic program includes a before and after body composition analysis, Lipotropic injection(s), B-12 injections to maximize fat burning, ketosticks to monitor your ketosis levels, private access to our unique weight tracking software and skilled hCG Coaches to help you maximize your weight loss.

At the end of your journey, you will be in the position of adding foods back into your diet rather than taking food out. The hCG diet will help you change your mindset about food so that you can maintain your weight loss. With other diets, it might take months or even years to take off the weight, with us you will see dramatic results in less than 30 days.

In the past year alone, weve helped people lose over 5000 pounds.

We are the the most knowledgeable and experienced hCG Center in Atlanta. We have treated over 10000 patients and have been in operation since 2009.

You will look and feel like a new person in under 30 days.

We offer freshly prepared meals, training and payment plans.

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Please call us today to schedule your free consultation.

NOW OPEN- Johns Creek is offering 25% off all programs and food! *Johns Creek location only

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The DASH Diet | Cooking DASH Diet Recipes & More…

Dec 21st, 2018
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Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is one of the most common diseases. It affects 1 in 3 Americans over the age of 18 years old. Hypertension, especially when ignored, can lead to more severe disorders such as cerebrovascular diseases, cardiac problems, and kidney failure. The treatment of hypertension and maintenance of optimal blood pressure level is of great importance.

Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood in the circulatory system, which is often taken for medical diagnosis and monitoring. The reading consists of two levels or numbers, namely the systolic blood pressure (upper or first number) and diastolic blood pressure (lower or second number).

Systolic pressure: indicates the pressure of blood against artery walls when your heart beats and pushes the blood round the body.

Diastolic pressure: indicates the pressure of blood against artery walls between heartbeats, when your heart is at rest and refilling with blood.

Normal blood pressure is 90 to 120 mmHg for systolic and 60 to 80 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. The criteria for diagnosing hypertension is a blood pressure over or equal to 130 mmHg/80 mmHg. Hypertension is further divided into two stages:

stage 1, where systolic blood pressure ranges from 130 to 139 mmHg and/or the diastolic blood pressure ranges from 80 to 89 mmHg; and

stage 2, where systolic blood pressure is over or equal to 140 mmHg and/or the diastolic blood pressure is over or equal to 90 mmHg.

People who have systolic blood pressure between 120 and 129 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure between 60 and 80 mmHg have high normal values of blood pressure, and this range is defined as a stage of prehypertension. Your blood pressure can be unhealthy even if it stays only slightly above 120/80 mmHg. The higher the level, the greater the health risk.

In around 5% of patients suffering from hypertension, it is due to an underlying medical disorder. For example, kidney disease, primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma. This kind of hypertension is called secondary, and treating the underlying condition will very likely result to a reduction in blood pressure levels or return to normal values. However, in most patients the cause of hypertension is unknown. This is called primary or essential hypertension, and it commonly requires a life-long treatment.

A high blood pressure makes it hard for the heart to pump enough supply of blood that contains the nutrients and oxygen needed by the different parts of the body. This can result to less elastic and scarred arteries. When stiffening of the arteries develop, it causes thickening of the cardiac muscle making it work even harder and weak. Damaged arteries affect the amount of blood supply that reaches body organs for proper functioning and a reduction in blood supply will harm any affected organs. This is why kidney failure is a very possible complication of high blood pressure.

Hypertension treatment is complex, and it includes lifestyle changes and medical treatment. However, medical treatment may not always be needed. You can ask your doctor for advise. It is important to keep in mind that medical consultation remains a priority.

The need for medical intervention can be determined by a doctor, where the combination and doses of antihypertensives are individual to each patient, as they depend on patient’s blood pressure levels, age, other diseases that the patient may be suffering from and patient’s general state.

On another note, every patient with hypertension is advised to make changes to their lifestyle. These include weight reduction, smoking cessation, engagement in aerobical physical activities, moderation of alcohol consumption and changes in diet.

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and The American Heart Association promote the DASH diet for the control and prevention of hypertension. The DASH diet was first developed in the 1990s, based on multiple research, in order to produce a food-based strategy to lower blood pressure.

The DASH diet has been found to lower the blood pressure levels of individuals whether they be hypertensive or healthy people. Interestingly, this can also be achieved even without changes in salt intake or weight. However, it has shown not to lower the blood pressure level of healthy individuals to an extent that it goes below normal levels.

The efficacy of the diet was proven in many studies: in average, it can help reduce blood pressure levels by 11/8 mmHg in hypertensive patients, and by 8/4 mmHg in non-hypertensive and prehypertensive persons.

The DASH diet is a meal plan containing high amounts of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fat-free or low-fat diary products, fish, beans and nuts should also be included. Foods rich in nutrients such as potassium, calcium and magnesium, along with antioxidants, contributes greatly to the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system.

The DASH plan recommends limiting foods that are high in saturated fat, such as red meat and full-fat dairy products, and reducing sweets and/or beverages of sugar content. Although the diet itself is proven to help reduce blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels, it is recommended that sodium intake is also lowered and limited to only 1500-3000 mg/day, as it further improves the result. The inclusion of restrictions in sodium intake to the diet has shown the greatest reductions in blood pressure levels among the studies. Hypertensive individuals with the lowest intakes of salt appeared to display the most impressive results. Eg., A daily intake of 1,500 milligrams (mg) sodium lowers blood pressure further than a daily intake of 2,300 mg sodium.

The DASH diet was not designed as a weight loss plan, but following the diet does not lead to unhealthy weight gain. However, since reduction of weight is also needed in some patients with hypertension, weight loss can be easily achieved by following the meal plan where you can reduce daily intake into 2000 calories; while increasing physical activity.

Following the diet, together with other healthy lifestyle changes adds up to the effects of antihypertensives. It may also allow the possibility to have lower doses of these drugs needed in controlling blood pressure in patients with hypertension. It is even more important in patients with prehypertension, for with these patients, lifestyle changes can prevent or slow down the actual development of hypertension. It can help prolong the time where you have no need for intake of medical substances or need for undergoing regular therapy.

The DASH dietary pattern may be effective at lowering blood pressure but is not only recommended for people suffering from hypertension; it is recommended for everyone, as it is a model of modern healthy diet, that is balanced, flexible, easy to follow as you go on and requires no special foods.

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Is the Keto Diet Really Safe? – thedailymeal.com

Dec 19th, 2018
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The ketogenic diet, or keto diet, claims to turn your body into a fat burning machine through restricting all forms of carbohydrates to an extremely low level. You can find more detailed information on what the diet looks like and where it came from here. It seems like a buttery, fat-filled fast track to weight loss but is it safe?

Many experts tout the benefits of the keto diet, ranging from diabetes prevention to blood pressure. However, registered dietitian Jackie Arnett Elnahar explained that many, if not all, of these benefits have been proven in studies involving patients with a chronic illness epilepsy or Alzheimers, for instance. They have not been proven for the average dieter.

Studies have shown great improvement in epilepsy and neuroprotective benefits for Parkinsons, Elnahar asserts. In spite of the advantages for some, it is not recommended for the general public.

There are some perceived benefits for those without a chronic illness. For instance, MusclePharm’s registered dietitian Kristen Bell explained, Because this diet is high in fat and so low in carbs, most will feel a decrease in cravings, and tend to feel full and more satisfied for longer periods of time.

But this temporary satiation comes at a very real cost.

What are some health risks of the keto diet?Ketogenic diets do have potential concerns and lack of scientific information on the long-term effects, registered dietitian and Arivale coach Ginger Hultin told The Daily Meal. Specifically, there is a possibility of kidney damage, nutritional deficiencies, and side effects including constipation, dehydration, fatigue, and nausea with this diet.

There still is not enough long-term research to confirm that the diet doesnt pose more serious health concerns. We dont know the long-term effects of eating extremely high-fat diets, registered dietitian Cheryl Mussatto explains, which go against the current chronic disease prevention recommendations.

But in the short term, some studies and some personal experiences have revealed that going keto has a number of undesired consequences.

Reducing carb intake to such a low level each day by the elimination of healthy food groups like grains and most fruits can result in nutrient deficiencies, says Mussatto, making it mandatory to use a multivitamin supplement to make up the difference. However, many keto dieters are not aware that they need to supplement to maintain a semblance of perfect health.

Mussatto also mentioned that for those on the keto diet, Constipation can become a problem due to the lack of fiber, along with other digestive issues. A dietary fiber supplement might be something to consider, as well.

What is the keto flu?Many keto dieters experience what is often referred to as the keto flu a temporary spate of flu-like symptoms that occur at the onset of the keto diet.

This wont last longer than a week for most, Bell explains, but you may experience nausea, runny nose, fatigue, and muscle weakness. For this reason, experts recommend being cautious with high-intensity exercise when you first start the diet. Exercise may become more difficult during this period when you are feeling weak and tired.

Are there any groups of people who should never try the keto diet? According to registered dietitians Cheryl Mussatto and Bari Stricoff, yes. They advised that you should not try the keto diet if you are in any of the following categories:

So, health risks considered, does the diet work? A person who follows a ketogenic diet will most likely lose some weight, Mussatto admits. However, once a person stops eating this way and goes back to how they were eating, the weight will come right back on and then some.

And all the experts we queried agreed that the diet is extremely difficult to follow.

Any diet that cuts out entire food groups often results in decreased sustainability, explained registered dietitian Bari Stricoff, and the weight lost will eventually be gained back over time if not more!

Stricoff described the likely cause of the short-term weight loss many people experience on the keto diet initially water weight.

When you stop consuming carbohydrates, your body will deplete your glycogen (stored glucose) for energy, Stricoff explains, The glycogen molecules are held in water, so when the glycogen is depleted, water loss occurs, and weight loss can result.

But when the extreme nature of the diet pushes people off the wagon, glycogen stores are replenished, and weight gain may occur.

If you dont lose weight on the keto diet, or any other diet for that matter, never fear you can accept your body at its natural, comfortable weight. You dont need to follow extreme diets or pose any risk to your health to feel confident and okay. Follow these simple tips to get started on feeling less insecure in your body right now.

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Is the Keto Diet Safe? 4 Potential Dangers to Be Aware Of …

Dec 19th, 2018
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Fact Checked

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By Jillian Levy, CHHC

December 14, 2018

Starting in the 1970s, when the Atkins Diet book was first published, low-carb diets have caught the attention of many people trying to lose weight and improve their health. The ketogenic diet (KD), which is both very low in carbohydrates and also very high in fats, has become one of the most talked-about diets in the past several years. With its rise in popularity, its no surprise that the keto diet has recently been the focus of dozens of research studies.

Based on what we know from the available research, is the keto diet safe? The evidence is clear that the KD can reliably help to treat obesity and improve insulin resistance, but the long-term impact of the KD on cardiovascular risk factors, liver disease and glucose tolerance is more controversial. Experts agree that genetics seem to play a role in how different people respond to the KD, meaning some may be more likely to thrive on very low-carb diets, while others are more susceptible to developing side effects.

Below well cover the pros and cons of the keto diet in terms of safety, and discuss tips for reducing the chances that the KD will lead to adverse effects.

What makes the the ketogenic diet unique among low-carb diets is that its characterized by a drastic reduction in carbohydrates (usually less than 3050 grams per day, depending on individual goals) and also a significant increase in fats, as opposed to protein. The goal of the KD is to enter the metabolic state of ketosis, which happens after a few days of strict carbohydrate restriction.

Eating very-low carb depletes glucose reserves (glycogen stored in the liver and skeletal muscle), which means that glucose is no longer sufficient to provide the body with enough energy and another fuel source must be used instead.

This is where dietary fats come into play: depleted glucose reserves leads to the production of ketone bodies that are used as an alternative energy source, especially by the central nervous system, including the brain which has high energy demands. In order to get enough fat and limit carbs, the KD includes plenty of foods like meats, eggs, oils, cheeses, fish, nuts, butter, seeds and fibrous vegetables.

Does the keto diet really work when it comes to improving health?

Is the ketogenic diet safe long-term? No one is exactly sure. Most studies have looked at the KDs effects in humans when the diet is followed for up to one to two years or less.

Longer-term studies conducted on animals have shown the KD may be associated with some adverse events. For example, in rodent studies, some will develop nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (defined as liver damage that is not due to excess consumption of alcohol, viral or autoimmune causes, and iron overload) and insulin resistance when put on the keto diet long-term. Other studies suggest that some individuals may be predisposed to heart-related problems if they eat a very high-fat diet for an extended period of time.

That being said, the keto diet has been shown to be beneficial in many studies, especially among obese men and women. Research shows that the KD can safely help treat conditions including:

Is keto safe for life? In other words,how long is it safe to be in ketosis? As mentioned above, research tells us thatthe keto diet seems to be safest when followed for about 26 months, or up to about two years or so when the individual is being monitored by a doctor.

Some animal studies have found that the KD can contribute to triglyceride accumulation and markers of liver inflammation, possibly because of the higher protein and fat content of the diet compared to other commonly recommended diets (such as the DASH diet or Mediterranean diet for example). (8)

Researchers believe that genetics likely plays a role here, making some people more susceptible to liver problems when following low-carb, high-fat diets. Is the keto diet bad for your kidneys? According to an article released by Harvard Medical School, Patients with kidney disease need to be cautious because this diet could worsen their condition.

Is the keto diet safe for diabetics? Most research shows that yes, it is. However, even though the KD can help reduce insulin resistance while someone adheres to the diets principles and strictly limits their carb intake, these positive effects may be short-lasting. Results from some animal studies show that insulin resistence/glucose intolerance may potentially be increased once carbs are reintroduced back into the diet.

However, other studies show the opposite to be true, especially among severely obese adults. Researchers, therefore, state that the effects of the keto diet on glucose homeostasis remains controversial and depends on the presence of type 2 diabetes before starting the diet, as well as genetic factors.

What are the side effects of the ketogenic diet? Its not uncommon for people beginning the keto diet to experience keto flu symptoms, which can include: irritability, cravings, menstruation issues in women, constipation, fatigue, headaches and poor exercise performance. These side effects are due to the body going through major metabolic shifts and essentially withdrawing from carbs and sugar.

In most cases, keto flu symptoms resolve within a few weeks, or even days, especially if someone eats plenty of whole foods, stays moderately active (such as by walking, but not doing high intensity exercise to begin) and gets enough sleep.

Its not totally clear whether weight loss achieved on the keto diet can be maintained by most adults once the diet ends, both because the diet can be hard to follow and due to the body adapting metabolically. Long-term studies conducted on animals show that weight loss tends to level off after about six months on the diet, and sometimes may start to creep back up.

The keto diet is not intended to be followed long-term, which means that individuals need to find another way to maintain a healthy caloric intake, such as by practicing carb-cycling or keto-cycling.

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Is the Keto Diet Safe? 4 Potential Dangers to Be Aware Of …

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Osteoporosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Diet

Dec 16th, 2018
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Medications that prevent bone loss and breakdown

Currently, the most effective medications for osteoporosis that are approved by the FDA are antiresorptive agents, which decrease the removal of calcium from bones. The bone is a living dynamic structure; it is constantly being built and removed (resorbed). This process is an essential part of maintaining the normal calcium level in the blood and serves to repair tiny cracks in the bones that occur with normal daily activity and to remodel bone based on the physical stresses placed on the bone. Osteoporosis results when the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone rebuilding. Antiresorptive medications inhibit removal of bone (resorption), thus tipping the balance in favor of bone rebuilding and increasing bone density. HRT is one example of an antiresorptive agent. Others include alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), raloxifene (Evista), ibandronate (Boniva), calcitonin (Calcimar), zoledronate (Reclast), and denosumab (Prolia).

Bisphosphonates decrease the risk of hip fracture, wrist fracture, and spine fracture in people with osteoporosis and can improve the T-score. Alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel, Atelvia), ibandronate (Boniva), and zoledronate (Reclast) are bisphosphonates.

To reduce side effects and to enhance absorption of the medicine, all bisphosphonates taken by mouth (orally) should be taken in the morning, on an empty stomach, 30 minutes before breakfast, and with at least 8 ounces (240 ml) of water (not juice). This improves the absorption of the bisphosphonate. Taking the pill sitting or standing (as well as drinking adequate amounts of liquids) minimizes the chances of the pill being lodged in the esophagus, where it can cause ulceration and scarring. Patients should also remain upright for at least 30 minutes after taking the pill to avoid reflux of the pill into the esophagus. Newer intravenous bisphosphonates, such as ibandronate (Boniva) and zoledronate (Reclast), bypass the potential esophagus and stomach problems.

Food, calcium, iron supplements, vitamins with minerals, or antacids containing calcium, magnesium, or aluminum can reduce the absorption of oral bisphosphonates, thereby resulting in loss of effectiveness. Therefore, oral bisphosphonates should be taken with plain water only in the morning before breakfast. Also, no food or drink should be taken for at least 30 minutes afterward.

Alendronate (Fosamax) is a bisphosphonate antiresorptive medication. Alendronate is approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as well as for osteoporosis that is caused by cortisone-related medications (glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis). Alendronate has been shown to increase bone density and reduce fractures in the spine, hips, and arms. Fosamax is taken by mouth once a week to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Alendronate is the first osteoporosis medication also approved for increasing bone density in men with osteoporosis, either in a daily or a weekly dosing schedule.

Fosamax generally is well tolerated with few side effects. One side effect of alendronate is irritation of the esophagus (the food pipe connecting the mouth to the stomach). Inflammation of the esophagus (esophagitis) and ulcers of the esophagus have been reported infrequently with alendronate use.

Risedronate (Actonel, Atelvia) is another bisphosphonate antiresorptive medication. Like alendronate, this drug is approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as well as for osteoporosis that is caused by cortisone-related medications (glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis). Risedronate is chemically different from alendronate and has less likelihood of causing esophageal irritation. Risedronate also is more potent in preventing the resorption of bone than alendronate.

Ibandronate (Boniva) is a bisphosphonate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is available in formulations for both daily and monthly oral use as well as for intravenous use every three months.

Zoledronate (Reclast) is a unique intravenous bisphosphonate antiresorptive medication that is given once every year. This formulation seems to have very good ability to strengthen bones and prevent fractures of both spinal and nonspinal bones. The convenience of once-a-year dosing is obvious. As with all bisphosphonates, patients taking Reclast must be taking adequate calcium and vitamin D prior to and after infusion of the medication for optimal results. Generally, patients are given acetaminophen (Tylenol) the day of the infusion and for several days afterward to prevent occasional minor muscle and joint aches. The infusion lasts approximately 20-30 minutes. Reclast is used to treat and prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and increases bone mass in men with osteoporosis. Reclast is also used to treat and prevent steroid-induced osteoporosis (glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis). Reclast reduces risk of fractures after a low-trauma hip fracture. Reclast should not be used in patients who have had avascular necrosis or during/prior to pregnancy.

Raloxifene (Evista)

Raloxifene (Evista) belongs to a class of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs work like estrogen in some tissues but as an antiestrogen in other tissues. The SERMs were developed to reap the benefits of estrogen while avoiding the potential side effects of estrogen. Thus, raloxifene can act like estrogen on bone but as an antiestrogen on the lining of the uterus where the effects of estrogen can promote cancer.

The first SERM to reach the market was tamoxifen (Nolvadex), which blocks the stimulative effect of estrogen on breast tissue. Tamoxifen has proven valuable in women who have had cancer in one breast for preventing cancer in the second breast. Raloxifene is the second SERM to be approved by the FDA. Evista has been approved for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In a three-year study involving some 600 postmenopausal women, raloxifene was found to increase bone density (and lower LDL cholesterol) while having no detrimental effect on the uterine lining (which means that it is unlikely to cause uterine cancer).

Because of its antiestrogen effects, the most common side effects with Evista are hot flashes. Conversely, because of its estrogenic effects, Evista increases the risk of blood clots, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (blood clots in the lung). The greatest increase in risk occurs during the first four months of use. Patients taking raloxifene should avoid prolonged periods of immobility during travel, when blood clots are more prone to occur. The risk of deep vein thrombosis with raloxifene is probably comparable to that of estrogen, about two to three times higher than the usual low rate of occurrence. Evista decreases the risk of spinal fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, but it is not known if there is a similar benefit in decreasing the risk of hip fracture. (The only agents that are definitely proven to decrease the risk of hip fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab.)

Calcitonin (Calcimar, Miacalcin) is a hormone that has been approved by the FDA in the U.S. for treating osteoporosis. Calcitonins come from several animal species, but salmon calcitonin is the one most widely used. Calcitonin can be administered as a shot under the skin (subcutaneously), into the muscle (intramuscularly), or inhaled nasally (intranasally). Intranasal calcitonin is the most convenient of the three methods of administration.

Calcitonin has been shown to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. In women with established osteoporosis, calcitonin has been shown to increase bone density and strength in the spine only.

Calcitonin is a weaker antiresorptive medication than bisphosphonates. Calcitonin is not as effective in increasing bone density and strengthening bone as estrogen and the other antiresorptive agents, particularly bisphosphonates. In addition, it is not as effective as bisphosphonates in reducing the risk of spinal fractures and has not been proven effective in reducing hip fracture risk. Therefore, calcitonin is not the first choice of treatment in women with established osteoporosis. Nevertheless, calcitonin is a helpful alternative treatment for patients who cannot tolerate other medications.

Common side effects of either injected or nasal spray calcitonin are nausea and flushing. Patients using Miacalcin Nasal Spray can develop nasal irritation, a runny nose, or nosebleeds. Injectable calcitonin can cause local skin redness at the site of injection, skin rash, and flushing.

Teriparatide (Forteo) is a synthetic version of the human hormone, parathyroid hormone, which helps to regulate calcium metabolism. Unlike other medications for osteoporosis that reduce the resorption of bone, teriparatide very effectively promotes the growth of new bone. Forteo is self-injected into the skin. Because long-term safety is not yet established, it is only FDA-approved for 24 months of use. It reduces spinal fractures in women with known osteoporosis, but it is not known if there is a similar reduction in the risk for hip fracture. Generally, after a two-year course of teriparatide the patient is switched to bisphosphonate therapy to maintain bone density.

The latest treatment approved for osteoporosis is denosumab (Prolia), an injectable antibody that blocks a chemical messenger that plays a role in promoting bone thinning by the bone cells that are responsible for bone resorption. Prolia strengthens bone by increasing its density and reduces fractures. Prolia is administered by twice yearly injections under the skin. Denosumab is used for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at high risk for fracture, defined as a history of osteoporotic fracture, or multiple risk factors for fracture, or patients who have failed or are intolerant to other available osteoporosis therapy. Denosumab can cause increased risk of infections and low blood calcium levels (hypocalcemia).

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Osteoporosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Diet

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