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What if I told you all you need to do to lose weight is read a calendar and tell time? These are the basics for successfully following an intermittent fasting diet.

Can it be that simple, though? Does it work? And what is the scientific basis for fasting? As a registered dietitian and expert in human nutrition and metabolism, I am frequently asked such questions.

Simply stated, intermittent fasting is defined by alternating set periods of fasting with periods in which eating is permitted. One method is alternate-day fasting. On fast days, followers of this form of fasting are restricted to consuming no more than 500 calories per day; on feast days, which occur every other day, they can eat freely, with no restrictions on the types or quantities of foods eaten.

Other methods include the increasingly popular 5:2 method. This form of fasting involves five days of feasting and two days of fasting per week.

Another variation relies on time-restricted eating. That means followers should fast for a specified number of hours typically 16 to 20 per day while freely consuming foods within a designated four- to eight-hour period.

But what about eating breakfast and then small meals throughout the day to keep the bodys metabolism running? After all, thats the conventional wisdom that many of us grew up with.

To answer these questions, it helps to understand the basics of human metabolism.

The human body requires a continual supply of energy to sustain life, and the foods we eat provide us with this energy. But because eating is often followed by periods of time without eating, an intricate set of biological pathways is in place to meet the bodys energy demands between meals.

Most of the pathways function at some level all the time, but they fluctuate following a meal in a predictable pattern called the fed-fast cycle. The time frames of the cycle can vary, depending on the food types eaten, the size of the meal and the persons activity level.

So what happens, metabolically speaking, after we eat? Consuming carbohydrates and fats leads to a rise in blood glucose and also lipid levels, which include cholesterol and triglycerides.

This triggers the release of insulin from the pancreas. The insulin helps tissues throughout the body take up the glucose and lipids, which supplies the tissues with energy.

Once energy needs are met, leftover glucose is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle in a condensed form called glycogen. When glycogen stores are full, excess glucose converts to fatty acids and is stored in fat tissue.

About three to 18 hours after a meal again, depending upon a persons activity level and size the of the meal the amount of circulating blood glucose and lipids returns to baseline levels. So tissues then must rely on fuel sources already in the body, which are the glycogen and fat. A hormone called glucagon, secreted by the pancreas, helps facilitate the breakdown of glycogen and fat to provide energy for the body between meals.

Glucagon also initiates a process known as gluconeogenesis, which is the synthesis of glucose from nondietary sources. This helps maintain the right level of blood glucose levels.

When the body reaches a true fasting state about 18 hours to two days without additional food intake the bodys stores of glycogen are depleted, and tissues like the heart and skeletal muscle start to rely heavily on fats for energy. That means an increase in the breakdown of the stored fats.

Aha! you might say. So intermittent fasting is the key to ultimate fat burning? Well, its not that simple. Lets go through what happens next.

Though many tissues adapt to using fats for energy, the brain and red blood cells need a continual supply of glucose. But when glucose is not available because of fasting, the body starts to break down its own proteins and converts them to glucose instead. However, because proteins are also critical for supporting essential bodily functions, this is not a sustainable process.

When the body enters the starvation state, the body goes into self-preservation mode, and a metabolic shift occurs in an effort to spare body protein. The body continues to synthesize glucose for those cells and tissue that absolutely need it, but the breakdown of stored fats increases as well to provide energy for tissues such as the skeletal muscle, heart, liver and kidneys.

This also promotes ketogenesis, or the formation of ketone bodies molecules produced in the liver as an energy source when glucose is not available. In the starvation state, ketone bodies are important energy sources, because the body is not capable of solely utilizing fat for energy. This is why it is inaccurate when some proponents of intermittent fasting claim that fasting is a way of burning just fat its not biologically possible.

What happens when you break the fast? The cycle starts over. Blood glucose and lipids return to basal levels, and energy levels in the body are seamlessly maintained by transitioning between the metabolic pathways described earlier. The neat thing is, we dont even have to think about it. The body is well-equipped to adapt between periods of feasting and fasting.

If an all-or-nothing dietary approach to weight loss sounds appealing to you, chances are it just might work. Indeed, intermittent fasting diets have produced clinically significant amounts of weight loss. Intermittent fasting may also reduce disease risk by lowering blood pressure and blood lipid levels.

On the flip side, numerous studies have shown that the weight reduction from intermittent fasting diets is no greater than the weight loss on a standard calorie-restricted diet.

In fact, the weight loss caused by intermittent fasting is due not to spending time in some sort of magic metabolic window, but rather to reduced overall calorie consumption. On feast days, dieters do not typically fully compensate for lack of food on fasted days. This is what results in mild to moderate weight loss. Approximately 75% of the weight is fat mass; the rest is lean mass. Thats about the same ratio as a standard low-calorie diet.

Should you still want to go forward with intermittent fasting, keep a few things to keep in mind. First, there are no studies on the long-term safety and efficacy of following this type of diet. Second, studies show that intermittent fasters dont get enough of certain nutrients.

Exercise is something else to consider. It helps preserve lean muscle mass and may also contribute to increased weight loss and long-term weight maintenance. This is important, because nearly a quarter of the weight lost on any diet is muscle tissue, and the efficacy of intermittent fasting for weight loss has been demonstrated for only short durations.

Also, once you stop following an intermittent-fasting diet, you will very likely gain the weight back. This is a critical consideration, because many people find the diet difficult to follow long-term. Imagine the challenge of planning six months worth of feasting and fasting around family dinners, holidays and parties. Then imagine doing it for a lifetime.

Ultimately, the best approach is to follow an eating plan that meets current dietary recommendations and fits into your lifestyle.

McKale Montgomery is Assistant Professor of Nutritional Sciences at Oklahoma State University.

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely

The announcement that a weight management medication is now being widely distributed has reignited the debate over whether pills can effectively help people shed pounds.

Officials at the biotherapeutics company Gelesis announced today that Plenity is now broadly available in the United States.

Plenity was initially cleared as a Class II device by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in April 2019, but it took Gelesis officials a year and a half to set up a distribution system.

Heres how the pill works:

This method of helping you feel fuller is said to provide meaningful change, so you can eat less and lose weight without depriving yourself of the food you love, according to the official website for Plenity.

This mechanism may be the missing link for people requiring weight management support, according to experts, like Dr. Adrienne Youdim, FACP, an internist who specializes in medical weight loss and nutrition.

If eating less and exercising more was enough, nearly 80 percent of Americans would not be facing excess weight, she told Healthline. While lifestyle is a cornerstone of managing healthy weight, additional tools, like FDA approved pills and medications, are a welcome addition.

The answer is more complex than a simple yes or no.

If youre only looking at the end point of weight loss, it appears taking this pill (which is technically a medical device) can help someone lose weight and maintain the lost weight, said Caroline West Passerrello, MS, RDN, LDN, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

This protocol [of drinking water and taking the capsules before meals] involves a behavior change and forces individuals to plan ahead and be more mindful of their behaviors, she told Healthline.

Passerrello pointed to a 2019 study that looked at weight loss associated with Plenity. The control and treatment group are both asked to maintain a reduced calorie diet and perform physical activity.

However, I dont believe the study looked into the behaviors around these changes, nor was the participants adherence to these recommendations monitored, Passerrello said.

A Gelesis spokesperson told Healthline that adherence to protocol among clinical trial participants is generally high.

Other than prescribing Plenity/GS100 versus placebo, we did ask for the same behavior changes across groups and there is nothing in the data that suggests one group might be more likely to pick up one of these behaviors than another, she said.

Passerrello pointed out another important item to consider. In these studies, she researchers should look at who the treatment works for.

For example, in the study mentioned, the population categories included 85 percent white participants, 11 percent Black/African American participants, and 4 percent other.

This population breakdown doesnt take into consideration the ways in which systematic racism plays a role in weight management.

Health inequities affect all of us differently. Visit our dedicated hub for an in-depth look at social disparities in health and what we can do to correct them.

Weight management is a complex issue influenced by individual behaviors, such as eating and exercising, and systematic designs (i.e. social determinants of equity or access to affordable nutrition), Passerrello said.

A healthy approach for one person may be unhealthy for someone else, she explained.

Youdim added that, while taking a pill combined with diet and exercise is a healthy way to lose weight, people need to be careful what theyre considering pills.

I am wholeheartedly against over-the-counter supplements for weight loss, as they are not FDA approved. Therefore, [theyre] not tested for efficacy and maybe more importantly for purity, Youdim said.

We know that weight loss supplements are often adulterated, meaning they have additional ingredients not disclosed on the label, and sometimes these added ingredients are harmful, she added.

There are a handful of FDA approved medications for weight loss that are effective when combined with lifestyle changes to help people lose weight, Youdim said.

However, no medication is without side effects or contraindications, and therefore it should be discussed on an individual basis with a physician, she added.

Passerrello said, when people are addressing weight management, many focus on the symptom (weight gain) instead of the root cause.

Until the root cause is addressed, any attempts to manage the symptom will likely be short-lived, she explained.

Think about someone who is cold, Youdim said. This person can manage the symptom of being cold (by putting on more clothes) or they can address the root cause.

Now, you might think the solution to the root cause would be to turn up the temperature on a thermostat. But, Passerrello said, its important to consider this persons unique situation.

What if there are financial barriers that prevent them from turning up the heat (or even having heat)? What if there is any underlying condition that affects how the body regulates temperature?, she said.

I challenge everyone to think deeper about the root cause of their weight concerns, and focus on addressing that root cause not the weight, she added.

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely

Not ideal (Picture: North News and Pictures)

Eating a balanced diet is absolutely vital for your health and wellbeing.

Not doing so can cause a wealth of problems for people, including, it seems, turning your skin orange.

Alysha Shobe, of Cincinnati, Ohio, ate sweet potatoes for or with every meal for six months in a bid to lose weight.

She completely cut out processed foods and went on a strict sweet potato and vegetable diet after a break-up.

The 34-year-old sales assistant said: It started in the fall of 2019 when I was mad at a boy who I really liked.

I was determined to lose weight, which led to me eating lots of sweet potatoes.

Ive always liked them, theyre very filling and satisfy my sweet tooth.

I became obsessed, I would only eat them and pumpkin pure.

I noticed a slight skin change but at first I looked tanned rather than orange.

After four months people started to see my skin turn orange.

I was a teacher at the time and even had a child ask me if my liver was okay.

The skin didnt bother me, but my mom was mad, she would always yell at me for turning orange.

At first, Alyshas diet consisted of five sweet potatoes per day before she added other veggies like pumpkin, peas and butternut squash.

Alysha did find that she lost weight, but thankfully she eventually came off the strict regime and started eating a more balanced diet.

These days, even though she still eats sweet potatoes, her skin is less orange.

She said: I still eat them now, theyre cheap and taste nice. I just dont eat as many, and Im not as obsessed with calories.

Previously, when writing about Kim Kardashians intense Met Gala prep, we got advice from Luke Hughes, personal trainer at Origym, on how to lose weight safely.

He said: Severely restricting calories for a long period of time can lead to nutrient deficiencies.

Its always better to lose weight or build muscle over a long period of time, by eating healthily and having plenty of rest in between workouts.

Losing one to two pounds per week is considered a healthy and safe rate to lose weight. Any more than this in the same amount of time may be considered too fast.

Fast weight loss can put you at risk of health problems, including muscle loss, nutritional deficiencies, gallstones, and a drop in metabolism.

Other health-related issues include shedding more hair than usual, feeling cold and irritable, having reduced energy levels, and people may find they stop having periods.

This often occurs when people exercise too much or attempt crash or low-calorie diets.

If you lose weight too quickly, its also unlikely you will keep it off permanently.

Do you have a story to share?

Get in touch by emailingMetroLifestyleTeam@Metro.co.uk

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely

Most of us are familiar with trying to lose weight: There are countless different approaches touted as the most effective method, and several branded diets that claim to offer the quickest or most sustainable option. These are often called "fad diets," as they tend to come in and out of fashion. Solutions such as the ketogenic (keto) diet, which focuses on high-fat intake, and the Atkins diet, famed for its low-carb approach, are two of those weight-loss trendsbut the effectiveness of these diets is often debated by dietitians and medical professionals alike. In fact, a recent study evaluated another popular diet and found that it actually doesn't have additional weight-loss benefits. Read on to find out which approach experts say won't help you shed some pounds.

READ THIS NEXT: If This Happens When You Eat or Drink, You Need Your Thyroid Checked.

Food affects our bodies in more ways than just the number you see when you step on the scale. Research has shown that different food and beverages can both help and harm your health, with a recent study suggesting that drinking tea could reduce your risk of developing dementia. Conversely, eating highly processed food was found to impact memory and could put you more at risk for the disease. Maintaining a healthy diet and ensuring we fuel our bodies properly can be challenging, which is why so many of us turn to diets that provide a specific plan or list of restrictions. But you may want to skip one popular approach, because it doesn't seem to do much.ae0fcc31ae342fd3a1346ebb1f342fcb

You've probably heard the term "intermittent fasting," which includes a dietary approach called time-restricted eating. When following this diet, eating is limited to a period of six to eight hours a day. Researchers have hypothesized that eating during a certain window aligns with our inner circadian clock, which helps the body perform different essential functions throughout the day. The approach has shown success in small study subsets, including rats and a small group of people with obesity, according to The New York Times, but a new study found that time-restricted eating might not have any real effect.

Findings from the study were published in The New England Journal of Medicine on April 21,with researchers concluding that, in participants with obesity, time-restricted eating "was not more beneficial with regard to reduction in body weight, body fat, or metabolic risk factors than daily calorie restriction."

Researchers at Southern Medical University in Guangzhou, China included a total of 139 patients in the study, 118 of whom had a follow-up visit at 12 months. All participants followed a calorie-restricted dietconsisting of 1,500 to 1,800 calories a day for men and 1,200 to 1,500 calories for womenwith one group also following a time-restricted diet, eating only between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.

Participants in both groups lost weight, averaging between 14 and 18 pounds, but there was no significant difference between the two groups at the 12-month mark. There was also no difference when analyzing waistlines, body mass index (BMI), body lean mass, blood pressure, and metabolic risk factors. When looking at the number of adverse events (an unexpected medical problem that occurred during the study) in each group, there were no substantial differences there either.

While study results suggest that restricting the time window for eating is not effective, this is not to say it won't work for you, health experts said.

"Almost every type of diet out there works for some people," Christopher Gardner, PhD, director of nutrition studies at the Stanford Prevention Research Center, toldThe New York Times. "But the take-home supported by this new research is that when subjected to a properly designed and conducted studyscientific investigationit is not any more helpful than simply reducing daily calorie intake for weight loss and health factors."

More research is needed to better understand time-restricted eating and why it may help some people and not others. For those who have difficulty counting calories every day, in particular, this form of intermittent fasting is a viable alternative.

"While that approach hasn't been shown to be better, it doesn't appear to be worse" than just calorie counting, Louis J. Arnone, MD, director of the Comprehensive Weight Control Center at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York, told The Times. "It gives patients more options for success."

READ THIS NEXT: This One Vitamin Could Slash Dementia Risk, New Study Finds.

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely

The 21-Day Smoothie Diet is a weight loss plan touted as an easy and effective alternative to fad diets.

In fact, the creator of the plan claims that the diet is associated with a long list of benefits and can help improve sleep, keep your skin glowing, skyrocket energy levels, and increase weight loss almost instantly.

However, there are several serious downsides associated with this program, and it may do more harm than good in the long run when it comes to your health.

This article will take a closer look at the 21-Day Smoothie Diet, how it works, and some of the negative risks and side effects it may be associated with.

The 21-Day Smoothie Diet is a weight loss plan developed by health coach Drew Sgoutas.

The plan involves swapping two of your meals each day with smoothies, and the principles of the program are outlined in the e-book, The Smoothie Diet, which is available online for $47.

The e-book includes 36 smoothie recipes, meal and snack ideas, shopping lists, weekly schedules, and tips for preparing the smoothies and maintaining weight loss long-term.

According to Sgoutas, the 3-week diet plan can help promote healthy eating, enhance immune function, detoxify the body, improve skin and gut health, and rev up energy levels.

Sgoutas also claims that the diet can boost weight loss. In fact, some testimonials displayed on the website claim that the plan led to up to 9 pounds (4 kg) of weight loss in just 3 days.

The 21-Day Smoothie Diet is a 3-week diet plan that involves replacing two meals per day with smoothies. The program claims to enhance immunity, boost energy levels, improve skin and gut health, and increase weight loss quickly.

The 21-Day Smoothie Diet involves replacing two of your meals each day with smoothies using the recipes found in the e-book.

There are 36 recipes provided in the book, created using ingredients like fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and almond or coconut milk.

In addition to these two smoothies, the plan allows you to eat one solid meal per day and two healthy snacks.

Solid meals should consist mostly of whole foods, and snacks should be low in sugar and high in fiber, with around 150200 calories per serving.

You are also allowed one cheat day per week where you dont consume any smoothies, though meals should still consist mostly of whole, minimally processed foods.

Optionally, you can kick off the plan with a 3-day detox, which requires you to consume a smoothie in place of all three daily meals, with two healthy snacks in between.

According to the programs website, the diet works by creating a calorie deficit, meaning that you are expending more calories than you consume each day.

The diet is also high in fiber and claims to help reset your taste buds to reduce sugar cravings.

The program is intended to be followed for 3 weeks but can be repeated as many times as needed until you reach your goal weight.

The 21-Day Smoothie creates a calorie deficit by replacing two of your meals with smoothies and eating one solid meal and two snacks per day. The plan should be followed for 3 weeks and can be repeated as many times as needed.

The 21-Day Smoothie Diet encourages nutrient-dense foods like fruits and vegetables while limiting processed ingredients.

Most of the smoothie recipes included in the 3-week program consist of fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds, mixed with coconut milk, coconut water, or almond milk.

Additionally, the plan emphasizes whole, minimally processed foods for your remaining meals and snacks while following the diet.

Some specific examples of foods that are encouraged on the 21-Day Smoothie Diet:

On the 21-Day Smoothie Diet, you should limit your intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and processed foods, including processed meat, refined grains, and fried foods.

Here are some examples of foods to limit or avoid while following the diet:

Whole, minimally processed foods are encouraged on the 21-Day Smoothie Diet, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Meanwhile, the plan limits processed foods such as refined grains, convenience meals, and sugary drinks.

According to the 21-Day Smoothie Diet creator, the plan provides a total of around 1,500 calories per day.

Consuming 1,500 calories per day will lead to weight loss for many people. However, this may vary based on many different factors, including your age, body size, health status, and activity level (1).

The diet also encourages a variety of nutrient-dense foods, like fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds, all of which are high in fiber.

Fiber moves through the digestive tract slowly, helping to keep you feeling fuller for longer, which could support weight loss (2, 3).

However, despite being low in calories and high in fiber, the 21-Day Smoothie is also very restrictive and can be difficult to follow.

Furthermore, research suggests that liquids, such as smoothies, are less filling than solid foods, meaning you may feel more hungry drinking mostly smoothies each day (4).

Not only that, but some studies show that weight loss programs that use meal replacements may be associated with a higher risk of weight regain once a typical diet is resumed (5, 6).

Therefore, while swapping some of your meals for smoothies may lead to short-term weight loss, its unlikely to be effective long-term.

The 21-Day Smoothie Diet is low in calories, plus high in fiber, which may lead to short-term weight loss. However, studies suggests that smoothies may be less filling than solid foods. Additionally, the plan may be difficult to follow and could increase the risk of weight regain.

In addition to being restrictive, unsustainable, and difficult to follow, the 21-Day Smoothie Diet may have several other downsides and side effects.

Eating just one solid meal per day and replacing your remaining two meals with smoothies may increase the risk of nutritional deficiencies.

Though the smoothie recipes recommended by this program contain nutrient-dense ingredients like fruits and veggies, they also omit or limit many of the foods typically included in a balanced meal, such as whole grains, healthy fats, and lean proteins.

Some are also low in protein. For example, the Green Detox smoothie made with kale, coconut water, bananas, ginger, and lemon contains less than 4 grams of protein per serving.

That makes it challenging to ensure youre meeting your protein needs, negatively impacting tissue repair, muscle growth, immune function, and more (7).

Additionally, though the diet claims to provide around 1,500 calories per day, most the smoothie recipes are very low in calories and unlikely to provide enough calories to meet the needs of most healthy adults.

Consuming too few calories each day can slow your metabolism and cause serious negative side effects, including hunger, nausea, headaches, and fatigue (8, 9).

Many of the smoothies on the 21-Day Smoothie Diet contain multiple servings of fruits, including bananas, pineapples, peaches, and strawberries.

Some also contain other high sugar ingredients, such as honey or granola.

Though these ingredients can be enjoyed as part of a healthy, balanced diet, the high amounts included in this diet may not be suitable for everyone.

In particular, people with diabetes may need to monitor their intake of foods high in carbohydrates, such as fruit or honey, to prevent spikes in blood sugar levels (10).

One of the biggest flaws of the 21-Day Smoothie Diet is that there is no research to back it up.

While smoothies can be a great addition to a well-rounded diet, theres no evidence to show that eating smoothies in place of other nutrient-dense foods can improve your skin, gut health, or immune function, as the diet claims.

Furthermore, the diets official website is filled with testimonials from customers claiming to lose large amounts of weight very quickly.

Not only is this unrealistic and unsustainable, but it could also be harmful to health (11).

The 21-Day Smoothie Diet is not based on evidence and may be associated with an increased risk of nutritional deficiencies. It is also relatively high in carbs and sugar.

The 21-Day Smoothie Diet is a 3-week weight loss plan that involves replacing some of your meals each day with smoothies.

Though the diet encourages many nutritious ingredients, its also restrictive, unsustainable, and very low in calories and protein, increasing the risk of nutritional deficiencies and other side effects.

Furthermore, its not backed by research and is high in carbs and sugar, which might not suit people with diabetes.

Instead of cycling through different fad diets to reach your goals, consider pairing a nutritious, well-rounded diet with a healthy lifestyle for best results.

That is more beneficial for weight management and overall health in the long run, and its also much more simple, sustainable, and effective.

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely

Studies in worms, flies, rodents, and monkeys have demonstrated that diets that severely restrict total calorie intake, while providing all the essential nutrients, extend average lifespan.

The research shows that in all these organisms, food shortages trigger physiological changes that promote longevity and delay the onset of age-related disease.

Calorie-restricted diets in humans, which involve reducing average calorie intake by around a third, may also extend human lifespan, though hard evidence is currently lacking.

Animal studies have revealed that timing of calorie restriction can have an effect due to the circadian system, which controls daily cycles of physiology, metabolism, and behaviors such as eating. This has also been linked to aging.

This led researchers at the University of Texas (UT) Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, TX, to investigate whether the timing of meals contributes to the life-extending effects of calorie restriction.

Numerous studies have shown that calorie restriction increases the average lifespan of mice. But most of this research has involved scientists feeding calorie-restricted diets to laboratory mice during the day.

Unlike humans, mice are nocturnal, which means they have evolved to feed at night.

So for their study, the scientists used automatic feeders to ensure that some of the mice ate only during the night.

To determine whether the timing of meals had an effect on lifespan independently of calorie restriction and fasting they split the animals into 6 groups.

In one group, which served as a control, the animals could eat ad libitum (as much as they wanted, whenever they wanted).

The remaining 5 groups ate calorie-restricted diets (3040% fewer calories) with the same total calorie intake but different feeding schedules.

Control mice that ate ad libitum had a median lifespan of 800 days, whereas mice on a calorie-restricted diet with food available around the clock lived 875 days, or 10% longer.

Mice on the calorie-restricted diet that ate only during the day (the inactive phase of their circadian cycle) and fasted for 12 hours overnight lived 959 days. In other words, they lived almost 20% longer than the controls.

But calorie-restricted mice that only ate during their active phase, then fasted for the remaining 12 hours, lived the longest. These animals clocked up an average 1,068 days of lifespan, which was nearly 35% longer than the control animals.

The scientists have reported their findings in Science.

We have discovered a new facet to caloric restriction that dramatically extends lifespan in our lab animals, says senior author Dr. Joseph Takahashi, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and chair of neuroscience at UT Southwestern Medical Center.

If these findings hold true in people, we might want to rethink whether we really want that midnight snack, he adds.

They also found that calorie-restricted diets improved the animals regulation of glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, but the improvements were greatest for mice that ate only at night (their active phase).

This suggests that the mice were healthier and aged more slowly, Dr. Takahashi told Medical News Today.

The researchers found that, in all the mice, aging increased the activity of genes involved in inflammation and decreased the activity of genes involved in metabolism and circadian rhythms.

Calorie restriction slowed down these age-related changes, but mice that only ate a night reaped the greatest benefits.

Since aging can be considered a progressive ramping up of inflammation, [calorie restriction] is also delaying this age-related increase in inflammation, which is also consistent with delaying the aging process, said Dr. Takahashi.

The authors note some limitations of their study.

In particular, they write that sleep disruption in the mice that ate during the day (during their inactive phase) may have contributed to their shorter lifespan.

In addition, all the mice in the study were male. The authors write that in females, ovarian hormones may provide some protection against disruptions in circadian rhythms.

As with all research that involves animal models, the study may not translate well to humans.

If the findings do apply to humans, which have the opposite active phase to mice, the scientists suggest that eating early in the evening is best for healthy aging.

One day it may even be possible to develop drugs that target circadian genes or the proteins that they make, in order to mimic the anti-aging benefits of eating only during the active phase.

[W]e are working on this idea and searching for drugs that can enhance circadian alignment, said Dr. Takahashi. Fingers crossed!

Eating late at night interferes with the bodys ability to keep blood sugar levels within a healthy range.

A recent study found this was particularly true for people with a particular variation of the gene for the melatonin receptor.

Melatonin is a hormone that helps to govern the sleep-wake cycle. As its levels increase in the evening, this not only triggers sleepiness but also impairs insulin secretion.

As a result, the body has more difficulty controlling blood sugar levels after meals close to bedtime.

Since many people opt for carbohydrate-rich snacks in late evenings, such as chips, cookies, candy, or popcorn, these snacks are more likely to impair blood sugar control and increase ones risk for prediabetes and diabetes, said Mariam Eid, R.D., L.D., a dietitian and founder of A Happy AOneC, which advises teens and young adults recently diagnosed with prediabetes.

Therefore, consuming carbohydrate-rich meals and snacks earlier in the day promotes better blood sugar balance and supports the prevention of prediabetes and diabetes, she told MNT.

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely

A jack of all trades, James Corden is mostly known for his acting career and hosting his late-night talk show where he jams out to carpool karaoke with celebrities and reenacts musicals on crosswalks. His comedic personality is what shines, however, he has been making news for his incredible weight loss journey.

Recently, the British icon has had a six-stone weight loss. Each stone is equivalent to 14 pounds, totaling Corden's weight loss to about 84 pounds. How does he do it? According to his interview with The Sun, Corden limits his eating to a timeframe.

Restricting your eating timeframe is also referred to as intermittent fasting. Specifically, Corden uses daily time-restricted fasting, which allows him to eat normally, but only within a window of time per day.

"I don't eat until 12," he tells The Sun.

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Along with this fasting method, Corden tries to eat cleanly. During the interview, he was seen drinking a 15-calorie, sugar-free, health drink loaded with vitamins, and announced he ate an apple that morning.

However, although he chooses healthier options, Corden stresses the importance of still enjoying foods and not restricting the types of food he eats.

"I try to eat healthily and not deprive myself," he tells The Sun.

Corden continues to say that he does not like the mentality of dieting, as it feels limited. According to him, the idea of going on a diet is "everything that is wrong" because you are most likely going to return to how you were before.

In the past, Corden has talked about losing weight through WW (formerly known as Weight Watchers). Now, he is partnering with the company because he has enjoyed the WW process.6254a4d1642c605c54bf1cab17d50f1e

Corden believes that in the WW program, you don't have to cut any foods out. Instead, you're becoming aware of what you're adding to your body. This makes you think before you eat, trying not to eat foods with too many ingredients. Because of this, you can have a bad week and not beat yourself up about it. Instead, you know not to revert to the eating habits you had that week.

Along with the eating habits that helped him lose weight, Corden boxes with his trainer most mornings. He also recently completed a four-day transcendental meditation course allowing him to settle his body down to a "state of restful alertness".

"You do a course, then at the end of it, you have these tools where, every day, you give yourself 20 minutes of silence to let your thoughts be whatever they are, and I've found that very, very beneficial," Corden was quoted to say.

RELATED: People Who Lost 20+ Pounds Swear By These 13 Weight Loss Tips

Kayla Garritano

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely

It's been known forever that when you're trying to lose weight, aerobic exercise is an essential part of your journey. Well, a new study from Edith Cowan University, performed at the Exercise Medicine Research Institute, reveals a total game-changer when it comes to shedding extra pounds. This recent research shows that resistance trainingaka weight trainingis just as effective when combined with a calorie deficit plan if you have weight you're trying to drop. Read on to learn more about this productive exercise for weight loss, and next, be sure to check out The 6 Best Exercises for Strong and Toned Arms in 2022, Trainer Says.

For adults who are trying to lose weight, getting in a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise or 75 minutes of intense aerobic exercise each week is recommended by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mayo Clinic explains that this exercise, paired with cutting down on calories, is an ideal way to drop some pounds. In addition, the new research expands on the importance of resistance training when it comes to weight loss, fat mass, and muscle mass.6254a4d1642c605c54bf1cab17d50f1e

Pedro Lopez, lead researcher and PhD student explains, "Usually when we talk about obesity, body composition or weight loss, we only hear about aerobic exercise. This paper shows we can use resistance training and achieve meaningful effects with a diet based on caloric reduction. We can reduce body fat percentage, whole-body fat mass, body weight and BMI."

Related: Get Rid Of Bat Wings With This 10-Minute Daily Workout

The effects of weight training, compared to aerobic exercise, are very similar when coupled with a calorie deficit in obese or overweight adults. Lopez goes on to stress there are other choices to lose weight in addition to aerobic exercise.

It can be distressing or overwhelming for some individuals to consider hitting a bike or treadmill for a half-hour or more. Bearing one's entire body weight to perform aerobic workouts can potentially cause injury to the joints, ligaments, knees, and more. If that's a concern, it's exciting to know that weight lifting can help achieve successful weight loss goals, too.

Related: The Most Effective Exercises To Reverse Aging After 50, Trainer Says

Lopez also points out the extra benefit of implementing a weight workout regimen in your journey to a new size. He says, "The study also showed resistance training was effective in avoiding losing muscle mass when lowering the number of calories being consumed."

If you didn't already know, once you hit 30, you can lose anywhere from 3% to 5% of muscle mass every 10 years. Progressive resistance training can help form muscle mass, no matter how old you are, according to Dr. Thomas W. Storer (via Harvard Health).

For more mind and body news, check out "Unhealthy" Exercise Habits That Can Actually Shorten Your Life, Expert Says and Shrink Belly Fat Faster In Your 40s With These Free Weight Exercises, Trainer Says.

Alexa Mellardo

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely

CLAIM

Apple cider vinegar and thermogenic supplements are effective for rapid weight loss

DETAILS

Inadequate support: Research about the effect of apple cider vinegar on weight loss is limited to a few studies in animals and small trials in humans. The modest effects observed after consuming apple cider vinegar and thermogenic supplements are unlikely to cause significant weight loss.

KEY TAKE AWAY

There are few studies examining the effect of apple vinegar consumption on weight control and these tend to be small and focused only on very specific situations or segments of the population, such as diabetic patients. As such, the results arent generalizable to everybody. Studies on the effect of thermogenic supplements are also scarce but dont show that these products lead to a large and rapid weight loss. People who lose weight gradually and steadily through a healthy diet and regular physical activity are more successful at keeping weight off in the long term compared to those who experience rapid weight changes.

REVIEW Posts promoting a weight loss beverage went viral on Facebook in May 2022. Multiple Facebook pages shared similar video clips of a cup containing a dark tea in which someone poured a spoon of apple cider vinegar and a spoon of an unidentified white powder, maybe a supplement. All the videos showed exactly the same glass and dosing spoons and seemed recorded at the same location. Many also contained the same text claiming to have lost 45 kilograms without diet and exercise after a simple 10 second liquid hack.

The pages that published the clip appeared related to a variety of topics, including wellness, sports, vehicles, and pets. Clicking on the Learn More button on these pages led to several different websites registered to Internet service providers in Japan and Vietnam. All the domains were registered in May 2022, and their only content was a testimonial from a woman claiming to have lost an incredible amount of weight.

The websites ran an Amazon ad for a dietary supplement containing caffeine, green tea, and the amino acid derivative L-carnitine. These ingredients are thermogenicthey produce heatand are claimed to burn fat by boosting metabolism.

As we explain below, the claims that thermogenic supplements and apple cider vinegar are effective for losing weight are widespread but unsubstantiated by scientific evidence. These deceptive claims, together with the misleading use of Facebook pages for advertising products are signs of dishonest marketing tactics and suggest that these posts might be part of a viral scam.

Thermogenic ingredients like caffeine might have a small effect on metabolism but no evidence indicates that they cause a significant weight loss[1,2]. Furthermore, supplements arent subject to the same strict regulations for safety and efficacy as medicines. Some might contain questionable ingredients, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration found many of them to be downright dangerous due to the presence of hidden active ingredients.

Vinegar is a sour condiment that results from a two-step fermentation process. First, yeast converts the natural sugar present in some foods, like rice or fruits, into alcohol. A bacterium, generally from the genus Acetobacter, is then used to convert this alcohol into acetic acid[3].

Vinegar has been historically used to flavor foods, as a preservative, and as a home remedy. In recent years, apple cider vinegar has been widely promoted as a detox ingredient and a health booster, either on its own or combined with other ingredients such as baking soda and L-carnitine. Claims about the health benefits of apple cider vinegar go from making you lose weight to treating diabetes and even curing cancer.

However, there is little scientific support for most of these claims. There is no research on the effect of apple cider vinegar mixed with supplements or baking soda on weight loss. A few small studies have evaluated the effect of apple cider vinegar on weight loss, but evidence supporting a benefit is weak.

Not all research designs provide the same quality of evidence. Large-scale, double-blind, randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard for evaluating the efficacy of a treatment. Such design allows researchers to reduce biases and control for confounding factors, such as differences in demographics or physical activity, which could otherwise be wrongly associated with the treatment. However, many of the studies on apple cider vinegar lack blinding, dont include an adequate control group, or are limited to specific groups of people. In addition, the small number of participants involved in these studies is unlikely to produce conclusive results.

In 2009, researchers in Japan administered none, one, or two daily tablespoons of apple cider vinegar to the regular diet of 155 obese adults. After three months, the researchers observed that the groups consuming vinegar had lost one to two kilograms and had a slightly lower blood triglyceride level and fat mass. These results suggest that, at most, apple cider vinegar might have a modest effect on weight loss. But the study is still too small to be conclusive. It is also unclear whether these results would apply to other populations with diets that are very different from that in Japan, both in terms of calorie intake and type of foods.

In 2018, another small trial studied the effect of apple cider vinegar combined with a low-calorie diet on body weight and blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 39 obese volunteers[4]. After three months, all the participants lost weight, but the group consuming apple cider vinegar lost about one kilogram more compared to those who didnt.

Proponents of apple cider vinegar claim that vinegar makes you lose weight by reducing appetite and insulin levels. The authors of the 2018 trial did observe that the group consuming vinegar showed less appetite compared to those who didnt consume vinegar. A 2013 randomized controlled trial in the U.K. testing palatable and unpalatable vinegar found that the effect of vinegar on appetite control was related to the feelings of nausea caused by drinking vinegar[5]. However, it is unclear whether the slightly sweet apple cider vinegar produces the same effect.

There is some evidence suggesting that apple cider vinegar might lower after-meal blood sugar levels in healthy people[6] and in type 2 diabetic patients[7,8]. However, these are small studies that only showed temporary, modest effects on blood sugar level. And in general, these studies detected effects from vinegar only after consumption of high-glycemic level meals, that is, meals that tend to raise your blood sugar to a high level quickly. This effect didnt occur in the case of low-glycemic index meals[8].

Overall, these results suggest that while there might be some benefits to consuming apple cider vinegar, these are modest and unlikely to produce the miraculous levels of rapid weight loss that these Facebook posts claimed apple cider vinegar can produce. The benefit observed in these studies was also limited to certain situations, such as in diabetic patients, and therefore not generalizable to everybody. Furthermore, the quality of evidence is low, and drawing a definite conclusion requires larger and well-controlled clinical studies. A systematic review published in the European Journal of Nutrition in 2020 analyzed the effect of apple cider vinegar on body weight and metabolism from 12 previous studies in animals and 13 in humans[9]. The study concluded:

Due to inadequate research of high quality, the evidence for the health effects of AV is insufficient. Therefore, more large-scale, long-term clinical studies with a low risk of bias are needed before definitive conclusions can be made.

Consuming large amounts of apple cider vinegar can also have side effects and contraindications due to its high acidity. For example, vinegar can erode the tooth enamel, irritate the throat, and interact with certain medications, including diuretics and insulin.

In short, apple cider vinegar may be a healthy addition to the diet. While more research is needed to better assess the effect of apple cider vinegar on weight loss, consuming vinegar alone is unlikely to have a significant impact on weight. There is also no compelling scientific evidence suggesting that thermogenic ingredients are highly effective for weight loss, contrary to claims on social media.

To date, there is no known weight control method that produces significant weight loss within a short time without requiring a person to reduce their caloric intake or increase their physical activity. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reminds us that lifestyle changes, including a balanced diet and regular physical activity, are more effective at keeping weight off in the long term.

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely

Burning belly fat can be tough, but it's important as excess weight around your waistline can be linked to serious health conditions including heart attacks and strokes.

Eating fads come and go and some crash diets possibly doing more harm than good, so it's important to focus on healthy ways of losing weight.

According to some medical experts, there are sustainable ways to cut belly fats.

In a study published by the Bulletin of the National Research Centre, researchers found cutting belly fats can be done by drinking plenty of water, regular exercise and eating 'thermogenic foods'.

Thermogenic foods will help improve your metabolism and calorie burning, and can also help reduce cravings which will make it easier to cut back on snacking, the Mirror reports.

In combination with regular physical activity, thermogenic foods will help you cut down on the belly fat without having to go on an unhealthy restrictive diet.

Thermogenic foods promote a process called thermogenesis, in which the body burns calories to utilise the foods just eaten, converting those calories to heat.

Many common foods are considered thermogenic, including the following five:

Increasing your intake of these foods could help you burn fats and, in some cases, will reduce your cravings at the same time.

In some cases proteins will help you lose weight as it will make you feel fuller, allowing you to cut out excess snacking more easily.

According to the health provider Bupa, protein can be a helpful way to lose weight because it makes you feel fuller than carbs and fat".

It added: If you include a lean source of protein in your meals you may find that youre not as hungry, and so eat less.

Excess belly fat can be dangerous because it surrounds internal organs and puts you at greater risk for developing several kinds of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes and liver problems.

According to the British Medical Journal, excess belly fat is linked to higher risk of early death regardless of total body fat.

When medical professionals refer to belly fat, they are referring to visceral fat as opposed to subcutaneous fat. In simple terms, this means fat that is stored deeper within your body, closer to your organs.

Visceral fat is generally acknowledged to be more dangerous than subcutaneous fat.

Do you add thermogenic foods into your meals? Let us know in the comments.

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How to lose belly fat with five foods that boost calorie burning and reduce cravings - Daily Record

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under How to Lose Weight Safely
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