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Human growth hormone (hGH) is a proteohormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It acts through binding to the hGH receptor, inducing either direct effects or initiating the production of insulin-like growth-factor I (IGF-I), the most important mediator of hGH effects. Growth hormone is primarily known to promote longitudinal growth in children and adolescents, but has also various important metabolic functions throughout adult life. Effects of hGH on the adult organism are well established from studies with recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in growth hormone deficient subjects. In this particular group of patients, replacement of hGH leads to increased lipolysis and lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvements in VO(2max), and maximal power output. Although extrapolation from these findings to the situation in well trained healthy subjects is impossible, and controlled studies in healthy subjects are scarce, abuse of hGH seems to be popular among athletes trying to enhance physical performance. Detection of the application of rhGH is difficult, especially because the amino acid sequence of rhGH is identical to the major 22,000 Da isoform of hGH normally secreted by the pituitary. Furthermore, some physiological properties of hGH secretion also hindered the development of a doping test: secreted in a pulsatile manner, it has a very short half-life in circulation, which leads to highly variable serum levels. Concentration alone therefore cannot prove the exogenous administration of hGH.Two approaches have independently been developed for the detection of hGH doping: The so-called "marker approach" investigates changes in hGH-dependent parameters like IGF-I or components of bone and collagen metabolism, which are increased after hGH injection. In contrast, the so-called "isoform approach" directly analyses the spectrum of molecular isoforms in circulation: the pituitary gland secretes a spectrum of homo- and heterodimers and - multimers of a variable spectrum of hGH isoforms, whereas rhGH consists of the monomeric 22,000 Da isoform only. This isoform therefore becomes predominant after injection of rhGH. Specific immunoassays with preference for the one or the other isoform allow analysis of the relative abundance of the 22,000 Da isoform. Application of rhGH can be proven when the ratio of this isoform relative to the others is increased above a certain threshold. Because the "marker method" and the "isoform method" have a different window of opportunity for detection, complementary use of both tests could be a way to increase the likelihood of detecting cheating athletes.

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Dec 30th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone

Overview Kenai Farms CBD Gummies Reviews & Cost

Kenai Farms CBD Gummies Reviews: In these times, when the world is changing so rapidly and everything is moving so fast, it would be quite miraculous to dodge any kind of stress and lead a healthy and happy life. With increasing age, the stress increases and so does the joint pains and chronic aches. These issues create a big hindrance in our daily lives.


Now, one of the most effective supplements to deal with these issues are considered to be CBD based food supplements. The CBD supplements are popular and very helpful in dealing with stress, anxiety and relieving pain. There are several such products available in the market these days as well.

But the question arises that are these supplements really safe? There is no denying in the fact that the food which has CBD supplements connect to marijuana and may cause psychoactive effects such as a sensation of being high.

Therefore, it is difficult and essential to find a product that is safe and effective.

Kenai Farms CBD Gummies are a candidate in that field. Let us have a look at this product in a bit more detail.

Kenai Farms CBD Gummies is an organic food supplement. This dietary supplement contains full-spectrum CBD. All the ingredients are 100% natural to ensure quality and safety. CBD Gummies are using by the people all over the world these days to relieve stress and anxiety and deal with chronic and joint pains. This food supplement has FDA certificate that clears that it ensures safety. Even though it is a product containing CBD, it does not contain marijuana or large amounts of THC. Therefore, it is non-addicting and does not have any effects of high sensation.

CBD Gummies are manufactured in the United States of America at an FDA approved facility, following all the good manufacturing practices. It is a non-GMO product and is free from any kind of artificial fillers. Kenai Farms CBD Gummies is a safe to use product, without any intoxicating or addicting property.

Kenai Farms CBD Gummies have all the natural ingredients that have stress relieving properties. The key ingredients of this full spectrum CBD food supplement are melatonin and, of course, CBD. Let us have a look at the role of these two contents in a bit detail:

CBD: Cannabinoid, without any doubt, is the most well-known and the most widely used ingredient in supplements to relieve stress and anxiety as well as chronic aches. CBD is a extract that comes from the hemp plant and relieves stress by releasing into the ECS (Endocannabinoid System).

The ECS is the central system in the body that is responsible for the smooth inner functioning as well as for regulating mood and providing pain relief.

The ECS receptors CB1 (found in the central nervous system) and CB2 (present in certain peripheral tissues) receive the signals from the ECS and transmits them, resulting in the corresponding response and relief or functioning.

The CBD added in Kenai Farms CBD Gummies is based on hemp extract and does not create any harmful psychoactive effect. Moreover, it also enhances good sleep and improves metabolism.

Melatonin: Melatonin helps in getting proper sleep. In fact, it is used in several medicines to deal with insomnia. In addition to this, it also helps in improving the immune system, manages blood pressure and cortisol levels. It can also act as an antioxidant.

Moreover, melatonin has been proven quite effective in dealing with seasonal depression. Melatonin is also known to have an effect in increasing the levels of HGH (Human Growth Hormone). It also improves eye health and may help treat GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease). Hence melatonin is the Midas of ingredients when it comes to developing a healthy food supplement.

Kenai Farms CBD Gummies are natural and safe. People often worry that the CBD based supplements often lead to intoxication. But that is not the case with CBD Gummies. That is because it contains only trace amount of THC, only about 0.03%, which is quite negligible and hence ineffective in causing any psychoactive effects or a high sensation.

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Kenai Farms CBD Gummies have not one but multiple health benefits. some of the health benefits are as follows:

As we know, Fun Drops CBD Gummies have all the natural ingredients only, there are no harmful side effects of this product. This dietary supplement is using by people all over the globe and there have not been even a single case of any serious health issue or side effect of using this supplement.

In fact, this product is clinically tested and approved to ensure safety. Moreover, all the ingredients are grown and harvested in the United States of America. This ensures quality of the product. Also, it is a vegan product and easy to take by everyone.

The biggest fear that people generally have in their mind while consuming a CBD based product is that it might lead to some psychoactive effects. But Kenai Farms CBD Gummies do not cause any such effect or any high sensation. That is because it contains only trace amount of THC, less than 0.03%.

Therefore, this product is safe to use.

It is always better to follow certain safety precautions while consuming any medication or food supplements to ensure safety. These are some of the safety measures you must keep in mind while consuming the Kenai Farms CBD Gummies:

Usually 1-2 gummies are advisable, as per the pack of Kenai Farms CBD Gummies. You can take one gummy in the morning and one gummy in the evening, preferably with a glass of milk. You can also consult a physician before consuming these gummies and then follow the dosage instructions prescribed by them.

Kenai Farms CBD Gummies are easily available on the official website. When you visit their website, you will find multiple offers and packages on this product, depending on the quantity of Pure Potent bottles you buy. You can select the package as per your choice and requirement. After that, you will be presented with several payment options.

Choose the most feasible payment option and make payment. Provide your shipping address and place the order. Order your product and your CBD Gummies Australia bottle will come at your doorstep within 7-10 business days.

CBD Gummies also provide easy return policies to ensure best customer service. So, if you want to return the product, you can raise a request within 1 month of buying the product, no questions asked. The money will be refunded within 15 days. Therefore, this product guarantees 100% results.

These days when most CBD products cause serious effects on your mental health, or makes you dizzy or tired, it is very rare to find a product that helps you deal with your stress and anxiety without causing any other ill effect on your health. Kenai Farms CBD Gummies is one of those rare products that improve your mental as well as overall health in a natural manner, without causing any side effect or a sensation of being high. This product is safe to use and is proving its worth worldwide by giving the most positive outcomes.

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Kenai Farms CBD Gummies Reviews (Price 2022) Cost & Website Review | Best CBD Gummies for Anxiety - Journal of the San Juan Islands

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Dec 30th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone

Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to boost heart health, keep blood sugar levels in check, and maintain the health of our minds for the long haul. But just as there are a multitude of ways to work out and keep your body (and mind) healthy and strong, there are a trove of different approaches you can take to doing cardio. Enter: HIIT, or high-intensity interval training.

HIITs definition is a heckuva lot more simple than you might think, says Annie Mulgrew, founding instructor for CITYROW in New York City and NASM-certified CPT. High-intensity interval training is a form of interval training that alternates between short bursts of intense energy or activity followed by minimal rest, ideally until that person is unable to continue, she explains.

And, as Mulgrew notes, HIIT can be just about anythingfrom swimming to running to mountain climbers in your apartment to even weight training. The key, she says, is ensuring that the short burst of energy is at least 80 percent of your maximum effort (so, 8 on a scale of 10).

For HIIT to be effective, your on intervals need to be all-out, she says. Mulgrew also notes that your rest period shouldnt exceed your active period (try, 20 seconds on and 10 seconds off). That rest period can contain no movement or moderate-effort movementthat part really isnt important, she says. Those maximum-effort bursts are where the gains are made, Mulgrew reiterates.

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In Mulgrews CITYROW classes, for example, that on/off scheme translates to both meters rowed on the rowing machine, as well as resistance training off the rower. You may find short rowing distance repeats or hip thrusters programmed as 40 seconds on and 20 seconds off, she says.

If youre using weights for your HIIT workout, choose a weight that allows you to complete 10 to 20 reps repeatedly in your on periods, Mulgrew recommends. Beginners should aim for no more than 20 minutes of HIIT total. And if youre a total HIIT nut, keep it no longer than 50 to 60 minutes (so the actual HIIT portion of the workout is around 30 minutes and the warm-up/cool-down roughly 20 minutes). Going any longer than that would most likely mean youre not able to maintain the intensity you need in order to achieve the benefits of a HIIT workout, she says.

Speaking of benefits, here are five major health perks associated with HIIT, plus, how to maximize your next interval workout.

Although aerobic exercise is a great tool in maintaining your heart health, as far as weight loss tactics go, that steady-state run isnt the best calorie-burner. And while weight training is typically the most reliable weight loss tactic when it comes to fitness type (remember though, weight loss is achieved through a calorie deficit, which is most easily achieved through diet), if there is one form of cardio that blasts calories, its HIIT.

One 2015 study (of healthy men) that compared calorie burn after 30 minutes of HIIT to other forms of steady-state exercise noted that HIIT burned 25 to 30 percent more calories. Other studies (also on men) have noted that HIIT propels your production of human growth hormone, or HGH, upwards of 450 percent in the 24 hours following a session, increasing overall calorie burn.

Yepa study in Journal of Diabetes Research confirmed this. The researchers divided obese, sedentary women into groups: those who partook in a HIIT program and those who did a moderate-intensity (but continuous energy expenditure) routine. The former group achieved similar body composition and aerobic capacity results in half the time.

One major (assumed) drawback to HIIT, of course, is the notion you need to be flying, flailing, bounding, and sprinting (with a series of complicated tools, no less) in order to achieve a solid workout. But as Mulgrew points out, the hallmark of HIIT lies in exertion, not the modality, so pretty much any form of exercise fitsand that includes the simplest form of cardio there is: walking.

In one Japanese study, for five months, 700 middle- and older-aged adults engaged in walking intervals (shorter bursts of speed interspersed with periods of rest). At the conclusion of the study, the individuals had noticeably improved endurance and strength.

Studies have shown that regular HIIT exercise can boost your memory and make you sharper in everyday decision-making. One (potential) reason why, according to Mulgrew: During a HIIT workout, you have to stay focused, she explains.

And, whats more, you dont have to sweat for very long in order to see results. A 2006 study compared two groups of college men for two weeks: those who did stationary bicycling at a moderate pace for roughly an hour-and-a-half to two hours for three times a week, and those who did six 30-second all-out sprints with four minutes of recovery.

Surprise, surprise: The HIIT-ers were just as fit (in terms of exercise performance and muscle growth) as those moderate-intensity exercisers by the end of the trialwith far less time invested.

Here, Mulgrew shares her top tips for ensuring you blast through your next HIIT session.

Be sure to warm up for at least five minutes prior to jumping in.

How to: Start standing with feet just wider than hips, a kettlebell in right hand, right arm bent with elbow close to body so that the weight rests on shoulder, and left hand on hip. Sink hips slightly into a quarter-squat. Then, quickly push through feet to extend legs, simultaneously pressing kettlebell straight up until right arm is completely extended overhead. With control, lower kettlebell back down. That's one rep. Perform as many reps as possible for 45 seconds, then rest for 20 seconds. Repeat for five rounds.

How to: Start in a high plank, shoulders over wrists, pelvis tucked, and ribs drawn toward hips. Drive your right knee toward your chest, then the left. Pull your right knee back toward your chest and pause. Repeat the pattern starting with the left knee. Aim completing 45 seconds of work, followed by 15 seconds of rest. Complete for five rounds.

How to: Start in a low plank with forearms on the floor and parallel, elbows under shoulders. Pick up right forearm and press through palm to extend arm straight. Then, repeat with left to come into a high plank, keeping hips as level as possible. Reverse the movement to return to start. That's one rep. Perform as many reps as possible for 50 seconds, then rest for 10 seconds. Repeat for five rounds.

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Dec 20th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone

Cancer Therapeutics and Biotherapeutics Market: Overview

As per the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 8.2 mn deaths that took place in 2012 were caused due to cancer. The increasing proliferation of novel approaches and personalized medicines growing demand are amongst the prime factors providing impetus to the global cancer therapeutics and biotherapeutics market. In addition to the chemotherapy market, this market is also dominated by biotherapy, which has come up as a new approach in the treatment of cancer. Biotherapy positively impacts the immune system of the human body and impedes or slows down the development of cancer cells. It includes kinases, interferons or interleukin, and monoclonal antibodies.

This study present a detailed evaluation of the cancer therapeutics and biotherapeutics market and presents quantitative evaluation of current market scenario. The factors fuelling and inhibiting the development of this market have also been collated under this report. The trends seen in the dominant regions will aid companies in planning their strategies accordingly. The report also encapsulates the late stage development and the currently marketed cancer products.

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The list of products in development stage and the present trends and issues impacting the cancer therapeutics and biotherapeutics market have also been presented. The report also encapsulates an extensive mapping of the competitive landscape of the market incorporating the behavior of market participants. Analysis tools such as Porters five forces model, etc. have also been incorporated in order to present the competition present in the cancer therapeutics and biotherapeutics market.

Cancer Therapeutics and Biotherapeutics Market: Drivers and Restraints

The global cancer therapeutics and biotherapeutics market is fuelled by the introduction of products such as gemcitabin, oxaliplatin, and pemetrexed. In addition, the new applications approval for the utilization of these products will positively impact the development of the market. Furthermore, the increasing investments from key players in this market and their increasing focus on lowering the side effects caused by traditional methods of treatment will stimulate the development of this market.

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The rising count of favorable policies introduced by governments globally toward proper screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer will also work in favor of the growth of the overall market. Additionally, the presence of better research and development activities will positively impact the growth of the cancer therapeutics and biotherapeutics market. The increasing occurrence of different types of cancer and the increasing proliferation of new players in this market are predicted to bring in new growth opportunities in the global cancer therapeutics and biotherapeutics market. The introduction of advanced methods of treatment will also provide impetus to the growth of this market. On the other hand, the growing side of effects of traditional treatment technology such as chemotherapy may inhibit the development of this market in the coming years.

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Cancer Therapeutics and Biotherapeutics Market: Region-wise Outlook

On the basis of geography, the report categorizes the global cancer therapeutics and biotherapeutics market into North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and Rest of the World (RoW).

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The top players in this market are Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, AstraZeneca plc, Eli Lilly & Company, Merck & Company Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Novartis AG, Roche, Pfizer Inc., and Sanofi, among others.

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Human Growth Hormone Market: Human growth hormone is responsible for growth and regeneration among humans and also stimulates cell reproduction. However, deficiency of growth hormone is constantly on the rise. Advancements in technology including development of recombinant human growth hormone by the major players is boosting the market growth.

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Cancer Therapeutics and Biotherapeutics Market: Increasing occurrence of different types of cancer to drive the market - BioSpace

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Nov 6th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone

LOS ANGELES--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Experts in hormone and hormone therapy Elite HRT have published a new informational guide on medication Zomacton. Their online article details what the medication is, what benefits it brings, and who should or should not use it on a regular basis. Their article, with medical review from Regulatory Affairs Specialist Camille Frecking, is available online and for free, in an effort to promote education on hormone replacement therapies and the benefits they can have on anyones health.

Zomacton, also known as somatropin, is a medication designed to treat a deficiency in human growth hormones, which can occur for several reasons. Human growth hormones are known to encourage bone strength and growth through aiding in the creation of osteoblasts, which are bodily cells that build bone material. In addition, it also balances this out by promoting the activity of the osteoclasts that break down and absorb old bone material as calcium. These hormones also break down fat in the body to help support healthy weight and fat loss, however Zomacton should not primarily be used to facilitate weight loss.

Zomacton is taken as a subcutaneous injection, and is prescribed, on average, in 0.006 milligrams per kilogram of weight daily, increasing to 0.0125 milligrams per kilogram after six weeks. However it should be noted that these figures can widely vary depending on age, weight, health status and history, HGH levels, and more; a physician or healthcare provider should ultimately decide your dosage. However, those who experience diabetes, mellitus, or scoliosis are not recommended to take this medication, as well as those with allergies to somatropin, pregnant women, and those with active cancers or growths.

Elite HRT is happy to have this online resource published freely for those considering Zomacton and seeking information on the medication. With this article, information on this beneficial Human Growth Hormone medication is more widely-available, giving consumers information on whether it may or may not be right for them.

About Elite HRT: Elite HRT is a telemedicine firm led by a network of physicians specializing in hormone replacement therapies. With unique approaches to HRT, TRT, HGH, and more, Elite HRT works to tailor solutions uniquely created for specific patients, all at affordable rates. Those wanting to learn more and contact Elite HRT can visit and submit a contact request form with background information today.

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Oct 14th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone

Latest statistical data titled as Human Growth Hormone has been published by Absolute Markets Insights. The report offers an overview of various features of recent trends such as opportunities, developments which are comprehensively discussed in order to provide an in-depth analysis of the progress of the industries. Effective exploratory techniques such as qualitative and quantitative analysis are also used in order to explore accurate data.

The research report has been evaluated on the basis of various attributes such as manufacturing base, products or services and raw material to understand the requirements of the businesses. Apart from the regional outlook, the report also draws attention to leading industry key players such asAnkeBio Co., Ltd, Ascendis Pharma A/S, BTG, Eli Lilly and Company, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Ipsen Pharma, LifeTein, LLC., Merck Serono, Novo Nordisk Health Care AG, Pfizer Inc., Sandoz Inc. (Novartis AG), Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Theratechnologies Inc., Versartis, Inc. and Vetter Pharma-Fertigung GmbH & Co. KGto understand the successful sales strategies of the businesses. Additionally, it also covers various factors which are demonstrated as significant market propellers.

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For an effective business outlook, the market study examines various global regions, such as North America, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Japan, and India by considering different segments such as type, size, as well as applications. SWOT and Porters Five analysis are also effectively discussed to analyze informative data such as cost, prices, revenue, and end-users.

The growing awareness regarding the efficacies of human growth hormone therapies to treat a variety of disorders is creating high demand in thehuman growth hormone market. These medications are being used for the treatment of growth failure disorders (noonan syndrome, turner syndrome and idiopathic short stature), growth hormone deficiency, intestinal disorder (short bowel syndrome) and HIV-related weight loss or wasting. Public health regulatory agencies around the world have recognized the capabilities of growth hormone drugs and are granting approvals for use in various cases.

In terms of revenue, global human growth hormone market was valued at US$ 4109.23 million and is expected to reach US$ 5819.32 million, growing at an estimated growth rate of 8.9% over the forecast period. The study analyses the market in terms of revenue across all the major regions, which have been bifurcated into countries.

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Global Human Growth Hormone Market Witness an Outstanding Growth and Strong Revenue and Forecast to 2030 | AnkeBio Co., Ltd, Ascendis Pharma A/S, BTG,...

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Oct 14th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone

October 10, (THEWILL) On Thursday, the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) charged Nigerian sprinter, Blessing Okagbare, with three different charges in relation to distinct disciplinary matters. Two of the charges pertained to testing positive for banned substances and refusing to cooperate with an investigation regarding issues around her suspension during the recent Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan.

According to the official statement containing the charges, Okagbare was charged with the presence and use of a prohibited substance, following the detection of Human Growth Hormone in a sample collected out-of-competition on July 19 in Slovakia and reported to the AIU on July 30. As THEWILL reported as of the time this charge was issued on July 31, 2021, resulting in the provisional suspension of Okagbare, the Nigerian had been scheduled to participate in the semi-finals of the Tokyo 2020 womens 100m that day.

The AIU statement contained a fresh second charge of doping in the statement released on Thursday. It charged Okagbare with the presence and use of a prohibited substance, following the detection of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) in a sample collected out-of-competition on June 20 in Nigeria. The AIU requested EPO analysis be conducted on the sample on July 29 and the adverse analytical finding was reported to the AIU on August 12.

It further claimed that Okagbare was notified of the adverse analytical finding on August 20 and described the reason the charge was weighty and deserving of suspension, saying, Human Growth Hormone and EPO are non-specified substances on the 2021 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. A provisional suspension is mandatory following an adverse analytical finding for such a substance under the World Athletics Anti-Doping Rules and the athlete remains provisionally suspended.

For the final charge, the AIU insisted that in accordance with Rule 12 of the World Athletics Anti-Doping Rules following the athletes refusal to co-operate with the AIUs investigation into her case, Okagbare had earned herself a separate third charge. It pertained to her alleged failure to comply with a formal requirement to produce relevant documents, records and electronic storage devices, which was issued to the athlete by the AIU on September 15.

The statement also included the fact that Okagbare specifically denied all charges based on her sustained insistence of her innocence of these charges brought against her. To further strengthen her confidence in her non-complicity in any acts of seeking an unfair advantage by cheating and using any performance enhancing substances, the African queen of the sprint immediately requested that each of these charges be submitted to a hearing before the Disciplinary Tribunal for adjudication.

THEWILL recalls that after an out-of-competition sample collected on July 19 came back positive for the human growth hormone (HGH), the Beijing 2008 Olympic silver medalist was embarrassingly barred from competing at Tokyo 2020. That initial provisional suspension for the offence arrived on July 30, the day before she was scheduled to compete in the womens 100 metres semi-final event and effectively ruled her out of competing in the entire Olympics, thereby striking off a very reliable medal hopeful in Team Nigerias contingent.

As THEWILL reported, the interim suspension of Okagbare in the middle of the Olympics was an embarrassment for Nigeria, as it came not long after the AIU barred 10 Nigerian athletes from competing because they had not been thoroughly checked in the build-up to the Games. The 33-year-old was entering the Tokyo Games as a multi-time African champion, who won silver in the long jump at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, before devoting herself primarily to competing in sprints. She was primed for success at Tokyo having earned gold in the womens 100m and 200m events at the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, as well as silver in the long jump and bronze in the 200m at the 2013 World Championships in Moscow.

However, dreams of an Okagbare podium finish for Team Nigeria were thwarted by the AIU hammer. The integrity unit of World Athletics explained the embarrassing abruptness of their suspension on the eve of the sprint champions participation in the semi-final of the womens 100m, which she had strenuously fought hard to qualify for, by claiming that the WADA-accredited laboratory that analysed the sample notified the AIU of the adverse analytical finding at mid-day Central European Time yesterday, Friday 30 July. The athlete was notified of the adverse analytical finding and of her provisional suspension this morning in Tokyo.

The issue to deconstruct now is: what are the medical implications of the substances for which Okagbare was charged, what do the charges truly mean in their very essence and by implication where does that leave Okagbare in the sustained insistence on her innocence?

According to a study conducted by Kien Vinh Trinh, Dion Diep, Kevin Jia Qi Chen, Le Huang and Oleksiy Gulenko and published in Volume 1, Issue 6 of the BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, titled Effect of Erythropoietin on Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis athletes have attempted to glean the ergogenic benefits of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) since it became available in the 1980s.

Produced naturally by the kidneys, EPO is also available as a pharmaceutical. EPO stimulates the production of red blood cells in bone marrow and regulates the concentration of red blood cells and haemoglobin in the blood. This is useful for athletes, since red blood cells shuttle oxygen to the cells, including muscle cells, enabling them to operate more effectively.

In laymans terms, muscle cells are factories that take the raw materials, oxygen and glucose, and turn them into energy. Now, although training increases the ability of the body to deliver oxygen to the cells and increases muscle size, more efficiency and more power yield better athletic performance. Increasing the number of red blood cells in the body increases the ability to deliver oxygen to tissues and that is where blood doping and the infusion of EPO into the blood stream come in to maximise this increase for the prospective athlete, providing an unfair advantage in the process.

As a type of blood doping that can help improve an athletes endurance, its use in competitive sport was first brought to the publics attention during the 1998 Tour de France, where the entire Festina team was disqualified after several hundred doses of EPO and other doping products were found in the team car. An approved test for EPO was first introduced at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. The test used a combination of urine testing, which would identify the presence of EPO (direct test) and blood testing, which would show the residual footprints of EPO drug use over time (indirect test). This was the first time blood was used for drug testing.

Since 2002, EPO tests in the United States were undertaken using only urine. However, in recent years the joint testing methods, such as direct EPO testing in urine and use of indirect markers in blood tests as part of the Athlete Biological Passport, have been used to help identify the use of newly-developed erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

However, EPO was once again linked with the Tour de France in its biggest and most famous case following the disgraced Lance Armstrongs admissions in 2012 of EPO use throughout his seven tour victories. Other sports associated with EPO use include boxing (Shane Mosley, 2003), 50km walk (Alex Schwazer, 2012) and athletics (Rashid Ramzi, 2008).

The 2008 case of Ramzi is most pertinent here given that, like Okagbare, he is an athlete of the track and field category. The 30-year old Moroccan won both the 800m and 1500m events at the 2005 World Championships, becoming the first person to win both events at the competition. Running for Bahrain at the 2008 Summer Olympics, Ramzi took home gold in the 1500. It was a historic occasion as that was the first Olympic medal Bahrain had ever won. However, in an unfortunate turn, Ramzi was stripped of the medal after he tested positive for an advanced version of the red cell boosting drug EPO. His two-year ban from competition ended on May 2nd, 2011.

It is but an indication of the seriousness with which World Athletics and its Anti-Doping agencies take the policing of cheats to keep the competition clean. They trained their sights on EPO doping ahead of the 2012 Games hosted in London when it was made known that mini-doses of the erythropoietin and EPO-like drugs as well as human growth hormone (HGH) could thwart the prevailing anti-doping tests at the Olympics. Smart cheats could apply mini-doses of EPO to avoid triggering positive test results. It urged the Athletics governing body to improve the technologically-driven detection of these processes from samples collected from competing athletes at random times.

These conditions make it an uphill task for Okagbares challenge of the two lab-based doping charges against her as they came from samples obtained at randomly unscheduled time frames. As the AIU statement on Thursday made known, from a sample collected out-of-competition on 19th July in Slovakia and reported to the AIU on 30th July and from another sample collected out-of-competition on 20th June in Nigeria, their technologically advanced tests were able to confirm the presence of Human Growth Hormone and the EPO respectively in the samples collected from Okagbare.

Yet, as Africas Queen of the sprint has demanded her day of self-defense to clear her name and restore her long and abiding pedigree of clean competitiveness, which have brought her laurels and medals, fame and renown on the continent and abroad, she will have her day of hearing before the Disciplinary Tribunal. It is hoped that a fair hearing will acquit her and confirm once for all that every accolade she has today, came from nothing but sweat, sacrifice, professional devotion to her career, dedication, discipline and that never-say-die Nigerian spirit that propels the best to the top.

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Charges Against Okagbare And Her Quest For Vindication - thewillnigeria

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Oct 14th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone

The NBA wont randomly test players for marijuana this season, a continuation of the policy that was put in place for the COVID-19 restart bubble.

The Associated Press reports that drug testing will continue for things such as human growth hormone and performance-enhancers, along with what the league calls drugs of abuse such as methamphetamine, cocaine and opiates.

We have agreed with the NBPA to extend the suspension of random testing for marijuana for the 2021-22 season and focus our random testing program on performance-enhancing products and drugs of abuse, NBA spokesman Mike Bass said Wednesday.

The policy comes as more than half of the states in the U.S., including Michigan, have decriminalized possessing small amounts of marijuana.

The agreement was revealed to players in a memo from the players union, the details of which were first reported by ESPN.

The league didnt test for marijuana last season, either.

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NBA will not randomly test players for marijuana again this season -

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Oct 14th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone

Nigerian sprinter charged with use of Human Growth Hormone, EPO and refusal to co-operate with investigation

Blessing Okagbare, who competed at the Tokyo Olympics in the womens 100m heats before being provisionally suspended, is facing fresh charges from the Athletics Integrity Unit.

The AIU have charged the 32-year-old Nigerian an Olympic and world silver medallist and two-time Commonwealth champion with use of the banned substances Human Growth Hormone (HGH) and EPO, while also allegedly failing to co-operate with the investigation.

The use of HGH was found in an out-of-competition sample collected on July 19 before it was reported to the AIU on July 30, the day upon which Okagbare won her 100m heat at the Olympics. She was then provisionally suspended one day after that race and forced to fly home from Tokyo.

In addition, EPO also known as Erythropoietin was found in another of the Nigerians out-of-competition samples, on June 20. Two days earlier, Okagbare had run a wind-assisted 10.63 for 100m in Lagos.

The AIU also state that Okagbare failed to comply with a formal requirement to produce relevant documents, records and electronic storage requirements by September 15.

She denies all charges and the case will now likely be heard by an independent Disciplinary Tribunal.

Okagbare is coached by Rana Reider, who has trained Christian Taylor andDafne Schippers while Brits Daryll Neita and Adam Gemili are currently part of his coaching group in Florida.

While there is no suggestion of wrongdoing on their part, UK Athletics spoke to their standards, ethics and rules committee regarding procedural advice when news of Okagbares HGH positive test broke on July 31.

The Nigerian broke on to the scene at Beijing 2008 when she won silver in the long jump before making an impact in the sprints, winning a bronze medal in the 200m at Moscow 2013.

Her personal bests are 10.79 in the 100m, 22.04 in the 200m and 7.00m in the long jump.

For the latest athletics news, events coverage and updates, check out the AW homepageand our social media channels onTwitter,FacebookandInstagram

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Blessing Okagbare charged with use of two banned substances - AW - Athletics Weekly

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Oct 14th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone

An extensive research report on the Hormone Replacement Therapy Market envisaged diligently by MarketResearch.Biz comprises a 360-degree view of the present market situation as well as its future growth survey. This report will offer you all the accurate data related to the different market bifurcations covering a crystal-clear idea on the Hormone Replacement Therapy market. In addition, we are literally promising you to give the perfect information on the distinct marketing angles and status over the upcoming duration of 2021-2030. There are some of the most important marketing aspects that are adequately boosting the growth of the worldwide market. They are gross margins, market penetrations, CAGR study, Porters 5 Force Model, descriptive and well-defined graphical representations, business strategies, etc.

A report comprising market current and future trends, market analyst opinions and perspectives, competitive scenario, and key regions from both regional and global aspects. This Global Hormone Replacement Therapy Market report offers an overview of the ongoing state of the market and forecasts of future progress. SWOT study is used to calculate strong market players performance and calculating their strengths and weaknesses. The report studied different factors, covering driving factors and challenges. Among its other features is the recognition of key players in the market and split study and forecasting. In addition to Hormone Replacement Therapy market new entrants, the study report helps them to estimates the market opportunity. Furthermore, the study focuses on the current issues, technical progress, and future opportunities that will influence the market. According to a study of upcoming trends, the global Hormone Replacement Therapy Market is projected to grow in the upcoming years.

Competitive Landscape with Key players:

Abbott Laboratories, Novartis, Pfizer Inc, Mylan Laboratories, Merck and Co, Novo Nordisk, Bayer Healthcare, Eli Lilly, Genentech

Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Taxonomy

Segmentation by Product: Estrogen Hormone Replacement Therapy, Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy, Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy, Testosterone Hormone Replacement Therapy.

Segmentation by Route of Administration: Oral, Parenteral, Transdermal, Others.

Segmentation by Type of Disease: Menopause, Hypothyroidism, Male Hypogonadism, Growth Hormone Deficiency, Others.

Regional Outlook: The Hormone Replacement Therapy Market

The current study analyzes the Hormone Replacement Therapy Market thoroughly. Research is also conducted for Russia, China, the United States, Taiwan, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Canada, France, Mexico, and Southeast Asia. It is expected that North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the rest of the world have the largest prudence in the Hormone Replacement Therapy market world.

Among other things, this report calculates factors that contribute to regional growth, such as the environment, Hormone Replacement Therapy market economic progress, and social factors. In the analysis, regional production records, revenue information, and manufacturer data were studied globally. Revenue and volume projection consider regional differences.

This report offers understanding into the accompanying variables:

Understanding Business Sector Development: This research provides a far-reaching outlook of the items provided by the top influencing players in the global Hormone Replacement Therapy market.

Advancement of new items: Reports anatomize the most latest innovative turns of events, innovative business strategies, and item dispatches.

Evaluating the cutthroat scene: Comprehensive investigation of market systems, geographic introduction, and item fragments of the markets prominent players.

Advancement of new business sectors: An cumulative manual for developing business sectors. Various areas are inspected across topographies in this report.

Market Expansion: The complete overview of progress and interests in the worldwide Hormone Replacement Therapy market, like new items, undiscovered topographies, and current patterns.

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Significant incorporation in the Hormone Replacement Therapy market report:

Impacts of the Covid 19 on progress status, temporarily and long haul.

A portion of the business crucial patterns.

Income, volume, and deals insights are included in this report.

Mentioned development possibilities.

Market and submarket development estimations.

Roundabout and direct deals channels: positives and negatives.

Hormone Replacement Therapy market sellers, dealers, and merchants are on the top of the list.

The labor force size and rebuild spaces of each organization are crucial subtleties.

Items and administrations are provided by the important players on the lookout.

Data from each organization in regard to its calculating model, deals volumes, net income, working interest, and a portion of the complete industry.

Itemized information on showcasing strategies, highlight the market, commercialization rates, just as other business-related information.

Table of Content

Section 1: Global Hormone Replacement Therapy Industry Outlook

Section 2: Global Economic Effect on Hormone Replacement Therapy Industry

Section 3: Global Market Competition by Industry Key Players

Section 4: Global Productions, Revenue (Value), with respect to the Regions

Section 5: Global Supplies (Production), Consumption, Export, Import, globally

Section 6: Global Productions, Revenue (Value), Current Trend, Price, Product Type

Section 7: Global Market Study, on the basis of Application

Section 8: Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Pricing Study

Section 9: Market Chain Analysis, Sourcing Strategy, and Downstream Buyers

Section 10: Business strategies and vital policies by Distributors/Suppliers/Traders

Section 11: Key Marketing Strategy Study, by Key Vendors

Section 12: Market Growth Driver Analysis and Their Impact Study

Section 13: Global Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Forecast

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Hormone Replacement Therapy Market Rise in Sustainability Around The World 2021 2030 - Taiwan News

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Oct 5th, 2021 | Filed under Human Growth Hormone
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