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Testes Essentials

In addition to their role in the male reproductive system, the testes also have the distinction of being an endocrine gland because they secrete testosteronea hormone that is vital to the normal development of male physical characteristics.

Anatomy of the Testes

The testes are twin oval-shaped organs about the size of a large grape. They are located within the scrotum, which is the loose pouch of skin that hangs outside the body behind the penis. While this location makes the testes vulnerable to injury (they have no muscles or bones to shield them), it provides a cooler temperature for the organs. A cooler environment is necessary for healthy sperm production.

Testosterone: The Hormone of the Testes

Testosterone is necessary for proper physical development in boys. It is the primary androgen, which is the term for any substance that stimulates and/or maintains masculine development. During puberty, testosterone is involved in many of the processes that transition a boy to manhood, including:

The importance of testosterone is not limited to puberty. Throughout adulthood, the hormone is integral in a variety of functions, such as:

Testosterone Production

The hypothalamus sends a signal to the pituitary gland to release gonadotrophic substances (follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone). Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates testosterone production. If too much testosterone is produced, the hypothalamus alerts the pituitary gland to make less LH, which tells the testes to decrease testosterone levels.

Disorders of the Testes: Hypogonadism

There are two types of hypogonadismprimary and secondary. Primary refers to a defect with the testicles, and secondary involves a problem in the pituitary gland that indirectly affects testosterone production.

The condition may be caused by many things and is most commonly the result of:

The testes play a vital role not only in the male reproductive system but in the endocrine system as well. The release of the hormone testosterone is integral to the healthy development of male physical characteristics.

Updated on: 01/29/15

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

CAPE TOWN, South Africa (AP) Two 18-year-old runners from Namibia were barred Friday from running in the 400 meters at the Olympics because of high natural testosterone levels, becoming the latest female athletes to be affected by the same contentious regulations that have sidelined Caster Semenya.

Christine Mboma and Beatrice Masilingi, who burst into Olympic medal reckoning with some blisteringly fast times this year, were subjected to medical assessments by track governing body World Athletics at their training camp in Italy, the Namibia Olympic committee said.

They were withdrawn from the 400 meters by the Namibian team after the tests revealed high natural testosterone which meant they wouldnt be allowed to run in the 400 in Tokyo.

The pair can still run in the 200 meters, where theyve also qualified, because tracks testosterone rules only apply to distances between 400 meters and one mile.

In a separate statement, the Namibian track federation said the two teenagers would still go to the Olympics and will focus their full attention on the 200m event. It said the runners were disappointed but they remain in high spirits.

Their exclusion from the 400 sparked angry reactions and criticism of the rules from numerous political parties in Namibia.

Before this year, both athletes were relative unknowns.

Mboma ran 48.54 seconds to win a 400 race in Poland on Wednesday, which was an under-20 world record and the seventh-fastest time ever recorded by a woman in the 400. It was also the fastest time in the world this year ahead of all the events big names, and the fastest time in the world since 2019.

Masilingis 49.53 seconds at a low-level meet in Zambia in April stands as the third fastest time of 2021 behind Mboma and Shaunae Miller-Uibo, the current Olympic champion.

Those eye-catching times spurred World Athletics to order the testosterone tests.

It is important to understand that both our athletes were not aware of this condition, the Namibia Olympic committee said.

The Namibian Olympic body said it was in close contact with World Athletics medical officer Stephane Bermon, one of the architects of the testosterone rules, with regards to the way forward in the interest of our two sprinters.

The situation is reminiscent of the highly controversial sex verification tests conducted on a teenage Semenya when she broke onto the international scene at the 2009 world championships in Berlin.

World Athletics latest testosterone regulations have been fiercely debated since they were introduced in 2018.

They have resulted in Semenya, the two-time Olympic champion, being unable to run in her favorite event and defend her title in Tokyo. She has launched legal appeals in various courts, calling the rules unfair and discriminatory, but has lost two of those appeals and is waiting for a third to be heard.

The rules have also affected two other high-profile African athletes, Francine Niyonsaba of Burundi and Margaret Wambui of Kenya, who won silver and bronze behind Semenya at the 2016 Olympics, where the testosterone issue became a dominant story.

Niyonsaba and Wambui have both also been barred from the 800, although Niyonsaba has qualified for the Olympics in the 5,000 meters and says she will run in Tokyo.

___

More AP Olympics: https://apnews.com/hub/olympic-games and https://twitter.com/AP_Sports

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

You may have seen ads targeting men with low testosterone or low T promising all kinds of benefits...but are they too good to be true?

Dr. Drew Oliveira, Senior Executive Medical Director for Regence BlueCross BlueShield says, The truth of it is, our testosterone gets lower as we age.

Oliveira says you may have heard that pills or supplements that can reverse this problem. And while there are some conditions that require testosterone replacement - contrary to advertisements, reduced vitality, strength and even demeanor or mood are not really a diagnostic for low testosterone.

Oliveira says to keep in mind that, Testosterone replacement has risks. A study of 15,000 older men men, showed a 21 percent increase in cardiovascular events in that group heart attacks, strokes. So, its not 100 percent safe to replace testosterone, especially in that population.

Instead, he suggests some other ways to stay healthy as you age.

First, if you smoke, stop smoking. Second, if you need to drink, limit your drinks to two drinks a day.

Alcohol use, Oliveira says, is associated with higher risks of cancer and cardiovascular risks, including hypertension.

Oliveira says you should also focus on diet and exercise to ensure healthy aging.

Maintain an ideal body weight. If youre overweight, even losing five percent will help. Eat healthy, what you eat should be very colorful, fruits, vegetables, grains, limit the amount of fats in your diet. All those things will help.

150 minutes of vigorous activity is also recommended each week.

If you do those things, you will feel better, you will feel younger, you will stay fit, you will live in optimum health, and you will live longer, says Oliveira.

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What men really need to know about low 'T' - fox13now.com

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

EUGENE, Ore. (AP) Transgender runner CeCe Telfer will not be allowed to compete in the womens 400-meter hurdles at U.S. Olympic trials because Telfer has not met the conditions World Athletics established in its eligibility regulations for certain womens events.

Telfer competed for the mens team at Division II Franklin Pierce, but took time off, then came back to compete for the womens team. In 2019, Telfer won the NCAA title.

Telfer was entered in this weeks trials but was ultimately not allowed to compete because of guidelines World Athletics released in 2019 that closed off international womens events of between 400 meters and a mile to athletes who did not meet the eligibility requirements. Among those requirements was that their testosterone levels had to be below 5 nonomoles per liter (nmol/L) for a span of 12 months.

Telfers manager, David McFarland, said Telfer would respect the decision.

CeCe has turned her focus towards the future and is continuing to train. She will compete on the national and world stage again soon, McFarland said.

USATF said in a statement that in order for athletes to be eligible for the trials, they must meet the requirements to be a member of the U.S. Olympic team, and that eligibility for the Olympics is governed by World Athletics.

It further explained: Following notification from World Athletics on June 17 that the conditions had not yet been met, USATF provided CeCe with the eligibility requirements and, along with World Athletics, the opportunity to demonstrate her eligibility so that she could compete at the U.S. Olympic Team Trials. According to subsequent notification to CeCe from World Athletics on June 22, she has not been able to demonstrate her eligibility.

In a blog last week in Womens Health, Telfer said: I love what Im doing and Im getting to live my truth and live my authentic life. I believe that this is my way of being the change that I want to see in the world. And I live by that every single day.

In its statement, USATF said it strongly supports inclusivity and providing a clear path to participation in the sport for all, while also maintaining competitive fairness.

If CeCe meets the conditions for transgender athlete participation in the future, we wholeheartedly back her participation in international events as a member of Team USATF, the statement said.

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Eligibility rule keeps transgender runner out of trials

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Known for its salty, savory flavor, the peanut is a popular snack and versatile ingredient used to make peanut butter, baked goods, smoothies, sauces, and more.

Its also incredibly nutritious, boasting a hearty dose of magnesium, folate, and vitamin E in every serving (1).

However, despite its impressive nutrient profile, many may wonder whether this salty staple can help or harm health, especially for people assigned male at birth (AMAB).

This article takes a closer look at the research to determine whether AMAB people should eat peanuts.

Peanuts are a great source of protein, packing more than 7 grams into each 1-ounce (28-gram) serving (1).

Protein is important for growth and development, as well as for wound healing, tissue repair, immune function, and more (2).,

Its also crucial for increasing strength and supporting muscle growth, especially when paired with resistance training (3).

According to one study, taking a peanut powder supplement increased muscle mass and strength among older adults when combined with resistance training (4).

Another study including 65 men with overweight and obesity found that consuming peanuts as part of a low calorie diet increased fat burning and decreased body (5).

Peanuts are high in protein, which can increase muscle mass and improve body composition.

Heart disease is a serious issue thats especially common among men (6, 7).

Diet plays a key role in heart health, and certain foods, including peanuts, have been shown to decrease several risk factors for heart disease (8).

Peanuts are rich in polyunsaturated fats like linoleic acid. Studies show that replacing carbohydrates or saturated fats in your diet with polyunsaturated fats may reduce your risk of developing heart disease (9).

One review found that eating peanuts and tree nuts at least twice per week was associated with a 13% lower risk of heart disease (10).

Other studies show that peanut consumption may increase levels of HDL (good) cholesterol, which may also benefit heart health (11).

Peanuts are high in polyunsaturated fats and may be linked to a lower risk of heart disease, which may be especially beneficial for men and others assigned male at birth.

Peanuts are loaded with arginine, an amino acid thats converted into nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a compound that helps dilate the blood vessels to improve blood flow and circulation (12, 13).

Studies show that arginine supplements may help treat mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (14, 15).

Other test-tube and animal studies have found that arginine could improve semen quality, enhance libido, and increase testosterone levels (16, 17, 18, 19).

Peanuts are also a good source of resveratrol, an antioxidant that has also been shown to support sexual health in men (12).

According to some human and animal studies, resveratrol may likewise improve sperm quality and erectile function (20, 21, 22, 23).

Still, because most studies focus on the individual compounds found in peanuts, more research is needed to determine whether peanuts affect sexual function specifically.

Peanuts are high in arginine and resveratrol, two compounds that may support several aspects of sexual function.

Peanuts are delicious, versatile, and jam-packed with a long list of important nutrients.

They may also offer several benefits specifically for AMAB people and could help promote muscle growth, support heart health, and enhance sexual function.

Therefore, all genders can enjoy peanuts as part of a healthy, well-rounded diet.

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Should Men Eat Peanuts? Nutrients and Benefits - Healthline

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

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Alicia Morgans: Hi, my name is Alicia Morgans, and I'm a GU Medical Oncologist and Associate Professor of Medicine at Northwestern University. I'm so excited to have here with me today, Dr. Mike Cookson, who is the Chair of Urology at the University of Oklahoma. Thank you so much for being here.

Michael Cookson: Thank you for having me.

Alicia Morgans: Wonderful. I wanted to speak with you a little bit, Dr. Cookson, about a presentation that you and your team had at ASCO 2021. We really looked into understanding age subgroups in the HERO trial, and trying to understand whether there were differences in castration rates between patients with different ages. Can you tell us a little bit about it?

Michael Cookson: Yeah. Obviously, this was a subset analysis of a previously published study, the HERO study, looking at the value of a new oral agent, relugolix, as compared to traditional standard androgen deprivation therapy with leuprolide. And so, what we were looking at, though, was whether or not there were any differences in the way that patients responded to the therapy based on their age, so we were looking at efficacy first, and then secondarily, we looked at things like, well, do they have any different adverse events? And then, also, there's a unique part to this study, where there was a look at when you stop the therapy, how the patients recovered from that therapy. And so, we were looking at, is there any difference in any of those three areas with respect to patients looking at their age?

Alicia Morgans: Well, this is certainly a really important aspect of clinical practice. The median age of diagnosis of prostate cancer is certainly in that older adult category, I think it's around 66 or so. And certainly, when we're using hormonal therapies, we know that those are actually more commonly used in older men, both because it may be a more advanced disease, then also because people don't necessarily always want to do surgery on them, so sometimes they have it in combination with the radiation or even, unfortunately, sometimes primary ADT. I'm just wondering, what exactly did you find in terms of rates of castration and then your adverse events?

Michael Cookson: Yeah. Of course, as you mentioned, this is a disease of aging men, and so most of the patients in the study were older, but about 20% of the men were 65-years-of-age or younger. And so, that 20% was an important cut point, so we looked at above or below the age of 65, and we also looked at 75 as a cut point too. About 71% of the patients were 75 years or younger.What we really found was that in terms of the ability to lower the testosterone and to sustain that level of lowering, there wasn't any difference based on their age. Patients responded well, regardless of their age. In the bigger study, the relugolix was effective in lowering that testosterone, kept it suppressed more consistently for the time period that the study was looked at, but it didn't really matter about the age. So, that's one thing, is that the patients responded well regardless of their age. The other thing to note is that at least in terms of the adverse events, they seem similar and were not really different based on their age. So again, similar efficacy and similar in terms of the side effect profiles based on age.Probably the most interesting finding was the recovery part. And so, as you mentioned, there are men who go on these androgen deprivation therapies, and radiation's a good example. There's a defined time that they're going to be on that therapy, and during that therapy, they do have side effects from their treatment, hot flashes and fatigue, and lots of different ways in which it affects their quality of life. What this study found was that once those men come off of the therapy, the patients in the oral agent were able to recover much quicker, and the most impressive recovery was in those young men who were less than 65. So, if you looked at that, and I've got my poster handy, so I won't miss speaking about the data, there was a significant recovery in those patients. And so, somewhere around 90% of those young men, really, the age 65 or younger, they got a relatively rapid recovery of their testosterone.Those are things that we think about in that niche group where you're treating a younger man, he is a defined period of time on the therapy, it's beneficial to his cancer outcome, and he wants to recover from that as quickly as he can. And so, that's really the major finding of our subset study, is that younger men bounce back quicker and have a more rapid recovery of their testosterone once that suppression's no longer needed.

Alicia Morgans: That's really important too. I think I was emphasizing the older adult population, but, as you mentioned, there are a lot of men who have aggressive disease who are actually younger men and they have different priorities sometimes and that testosterone recovery can be very high on their list. So, that's super important and I really appreciate you bringing that to light. If you had to summarize this work to really just have a short statement about what people should take home from your study. What would that summary be?

Michael Cookson: If I was going to summarize what we found, what I would say is that the first thing we looked at was the ability for relugolix to create that, compared to leuprolide, to create a sustained lowering of their testosterone level. What we found was that, as in the overall study, that it performed better and that was independent of age. So, if we were to look at subsets of, say, younger men, say those 65-years-of-age or less, there was about a 91% sustainability of the treatment as compared to about 84% in the leuprolide, but not statistically different. So, it is a sustainable thing and it works regardless of age. If we looked at the adverse events, the side effect profile, again, similar findings regardless of age, no real differences there.Where we found our significant finding was in the recoverability of testosterone once the therapy is stopped. There was a subset, about 19% of men, who were 65-years-of-age or less, and in that group, when we stopped therapy and we look at the recovery in the first 90 days, that's where we found about 79% of those men recovered their testosterone, compared to only around 17% in those patients that were treated with leuprolide. That's a pretty significant finding and that's really the emphasis of this poster.This new therapy, this new oral agent, works regardless of age, so that's an important thing, and the side effects are present regardless of age as well. But when we're looking at the recovery of testosterone, we're going to see a more robust recovery in men that are younger, say 65-years-of-age or less, and that can be really important for those men are treated for a real defined time, such as when used in combination with radiation therapy, or for those men on intermittent therapy, where they want to recover some of those quality of life issues once the therapy has stopped.

Alicia Morgans: Fantastic. Well, I sincerely appreciate your time, and of course, the work that you and the team have put into this analysis. Thank you so much.

Michael Cookson: Okay, thank you. Thanks for covering us.

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Impact of Age on Castration Rates from The HERO Study Michael Cookson - UroToday

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Following a Mediterranean diet could reduce erectile dysfunction. Getty

The Mediterranean diet could reduce erectile dysfunction, according to new research.

The diet focuses on vegetables, olive oil, and seafood, with minimal fried food, red meat, and sugar.

The diet can help reduce blood pressure, which in turn can boost erectile performance and testosterone.

Visit Insider's homepage for more stories.

Following the Mediterranean diet could reduce erectile dysfunction, new research suggests.

The Mediterranean diet consists of vegetables, legumes, seafood, olive oil, and wine in moderation, and encourages minimal consumption of processed and fried foods, red meat, refined grains, added sugars, and saturated fats.

People who eat this way may reduce their risk of erectile dysfunction, according to the new study, presented by researchers at the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2021.

In the study, 250 middle aged men with an average age of 56 were asked to follow the Mediterranean diet. Their adherence to the diet was assessed, and then compared with their fitness, testosterone levels, blood flow, arterial stiffness, and erectile performance.

The researchers found that those who followed the diet most strictly had better erectile performance, blood flow, exercise capacity, higher testosterone levels, and healthier arteries than those who were less consistent.

Study author Dr. Athanasios Angelis of the University of Athens, Greece said: "While we did not examine mechanisms, it seems plausible that this dietary pattern may improve fitness and erectile performance by enhancing function of the blood vessels and limiting the fall in testosterone that occurs in midlife."

The findings suggest that the Mediterranean diet could help maintain good quality of life and various health markers in men as they age, he said.

Erectile dysfunction occurs when the small arteries cannot dilate which can prohibit blood flow. Symptoms often begin in middle age when testosterone levels decrease.

Story continues

Men who have hypertension (high or raised blood pressure) are twice as likely to suffer from erectile dysfunction as men who do not.

The Mediterranean diet has previously been linked to reduced blood pressure and better cardiovascular health.

Read the original article on Insider

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A Mediterranean diet packed with whole grains and vegetables could lessen erectile dysfunction, study finds - Yahoo Singapore News

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Those who have always been in opposition to the controversial ban want the rule dropped

Two-time gold medalist Caster Semenya may now be able to compete at international events following an investigation that resulted in World Athletics admitting that some of their findings, which led to Semenya being excluded from the recent Tokyo Olympics, were misleading.

A new rule introduced in 2019 prohibits athletes with differences of sexual development from competing in races with distances between 400 meters and 1 mile if they dont take testosterone-reducing drugs.

Semenya has consistently refused to abide by the rule, citing concerns they could be a danger to her overall health. She wasnt allowed to compete in the Olympics as a result.

But now her lawyers want answers after this new discovery from the governing body.

The Telegraph reported that the evidence from 2017 claimed to show an actual increase in performance from female athletes with high testosterone levels. But a recent correction by the British Journal of Sports Medicine says otherwise.

Stephane Bermon, the current director of World Athletics health and science department, made a statement noting, the paper could have been misleading.

He explained further: To be explicit, there is no confirmatory evidence for causality in the observed relationships reported. We acknowledge that our 2017 study was exploratory. With this in mind, we recognize that statements in the paper could have been misleading by implying a causal inference. Specifically, Female athletes with high fT [testosterone] levels have a significant competitive advantage over those with low fT in 400 m, 400 m hurdles, 800 m, hammer throw, and pole vault. This statement should be amended to: High fT levels in female athletes were associated with higher athletic performance over those with low fT in 400 m, 400 m hurdles, 800 m, hammer throw, and pole vault.'

Campaigners who have opposed the rule want it to be dropped altogether.

Story continues

Caster Semenya reacts before the womens 5000 meter race in Regensburg, Saturday, June 19, 2021. (Stefan Puchner/dpa via AP)

Semenyas lawyer said the announcement represents very significant new information.

We are in the midst of the European Court of Human Rights case and will be discussing with our London Queens Counsel and the whole legal team how to introduce the information into the proceedings, he said.

World Athletics have recently given notice of their wish to intervene in the European Court of Human Rights proceedings and we would hope that they will now support setting aside the regulations. It is more than surprising that World Athletics did not reveal this evidence before the recent Tokyo Olympics and allow Caster to defend her 800-meter title, her lawyer continued.

Semenya won a gold medal at the Olympics in Rio in 2016 and London in 2012. She tried to qualify for both the 200 meters and the 5,000 meters both of which she was permitted to participate in in Tokyo, but she was denied.

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The post Athletic authorities say the report which led to Caster Semenyas ban was misleading appeared first on TheGrio.

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Athletic authorities say the report which led to Caster Semenyas ban was misleading - Yahoo News

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Many older adults make the mistake of exercising less than they did when they were younger. But we should know better. In fact, you could make a strong case for exercising being even more important the older you get.

"When we are in our teens and 20s, building and maintaining muscle mass is as straightforward as it's ever going to be, explains Jack McNamara, M.Sc., C.S.C.S., of TrainFitness. "With the right exercise selection, training intensity, and nutrition, our muscles are primed to effectively increase in efficiency, size, and strength. But most people, especially those who don't have a history of lifting, will begin to lose muscle mass from their 30s onwards."

The medical term for what Bailey is describing is sarcopenia, or the gradual loss of muscle with age. You may not care all that much about cultivating a bodybuilder's physique after 60, but sarcopenia can lead to a steep decline in life quality. Balance suffers, bones and joints become weaker, and, before long, everyday tasks like simply climbing a flight of stairs can feel like a challenge. Just like taxes, sarcopenia is unavoidableat least to a certain extent.

"Muscle loss is a natural part of the aging process, but that doesn't mean you can't do something about it," says Josh Schlottman, C.S.C.S. For example, one study published in PLOS One found that a six-month resistance exercise training program "markedly reversed" the aging process among participants' muscles.

When we spoke to fitness experts about the best way for older adults to start building more muscle, a few recommendations kept coming up time and time again. To start, don't push yourself too hard. It's important to begin with exercises, weights, and routines that are right for your body and health.

Rachelle Reed, Ph.D., Senior Director of Health Science & Research for Orangetheory Fitness, recommends that older adults set SMART goals for themselves. "SMART stands for specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and timely," she says. "As you begin a new exercise routine, remember to be kind to yourself and set reasonable goals. Rather than jumping in head-first, start slowly and in a way that feels manageable with your schedule."

But what about specific exercises?

We all know that muscles are built with weightlifting and resistance exercises first and foremost, but many of the trainers and physicians we spoke with say it's a mistake for those over 60 to focus too heavily on one specific muscle group. "I recommend reducing the total volume per muscle group you do per day and combining several muscle groups in one training session," says Dimitar Marinov, M.D., Ph.D. "This way, there is no risk to overtrain a single muscle group and injure yourself. Instead, you will do 1-2 exercises per muscle and train either half or all of your muscles in one workout. You can do that 2-3 times per week which will compensate for the decreased volume per session."

For the record, he's referring to compound exercises, and this approach is advantageous for older individuals for a few reasons. By spreading out the strain you'll reduce risk of injury while simultaneously targeting and building more muscles. Moreover, compound resistance exercises are also great for increasing testosterone levels, which is essential when it comes to building and maintaining more muscle.

Research published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology found that just one month of weight training increased testosterone levels among male participants by an average of 36%. Of course, women can also benefit from an uptick in testosterone when it comes to muscle maintenance and growth. "Hormones that impact our ability to build and maintain muscle, such as testosterone, drop by around 1% per year after 40. Performing compound moves stimulates the body to spike production of these hormones and ameliorate the decline as we age," Jack McNamara continues.

If you're ready to get started, read on to learn more about some of the best compound exercises for more muscle after 60. And for more reasons to exercise, don't miss this Secret Side Effect of Exercising More After 60, Says New Study.

Pull ups are an exercise classicand for good reason. They target the lats, delts, triceps, back, and core all at once using nothing but a bar to hold on to and your body weight. Even better, you can target different muscle areas depending on your grip. A close grip will focus more on your biceps and outer lats, while a wider grip will work your traps and inner lats more. And for some great exercise advice, don't miss the Secret Side Effects of Lifting Weights for the First Time, Says Science.

A diligent squatting routine can improve balance, posture, strengthen your core, improve bone density, and even help prevent dementia! Squats don't always come easy, and proper form is notoriously hard for even some experienced exercisers, but the leg muscle building benefits of this exercise makes it an essential part of any workout.

"This exercise is key to building muscle in the legs and lower body. For those over 60 with balance or coordination issues hold onto the back of a chair for balance. Stand with your feet hip width apart with your toes pointed straight ahead. Begin to lower your hips towards the floor by pushing them back behind you like you're going to take a seat. Try to get your legs to go down low enough so they're parallel to the floor. Keep breathing throughout the movement as you return back up to the starting position," Josh Schlottman suggests.

The rowing machine can be pretty intimidating for fitness beginners, but it's ideal for older adults looking to build muscle for a few reasons.

"One of the best exercises for building and maintaining muscle over age 60 is rowing," explains Caley Crawford, NASM-CPT, Director of Education for Row House. "People often associate rowing with cardio, but it is also a great strength-building exercise as it engages over 85% of the body's muscles. Rowing is low-impact and works 85 percent of the body's muscles, which means more bones are loaded and in turn, strengthened. Because rowing is done from a seated position and individuals are strapped into the footholds, there is no risk of falling during the exercise either. This helps offset the effects of bone resorption and conditions like osteoporosis. And unlike a spin bike or elliptical, the erg allows for full range of motion, promoting flexibility and joint health."

One study published in Biomedical Materials and Engineering even reports that rowing can help improve elbow, shoulder, and knee movements.

A regular bench press really only works the pectoral muscles, which is why an incline bench press is the superior choice for those over 60. By lifting at an incline of anywhere from 30-45 degrees (this will vary somewhat depending on your height and body type), you'll be working your entire upper chest, front deltoids, and triceps.

But, remember: Don't push yourself too hard with the weight. Start light and gradually build up your max rep over time. Also, your eyes should be directly under the bar when you sit down to begin. And for some more ways to motivate yourself to get to the gym, don't miss The Secret Tricks for Convincing Yourself to Exercise, Say Experts.

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Over 60? Do These Exercises to Build Stronger Muscles, Say Experts | Eat This Not That - Eat This, Not That

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

This article was originally published here

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Aug 26:1-8. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1970509. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

High-fat diet (HFD) intake can cause overweight and obesity and has become a global public health concern in recent years. Nutritional adversity at vulnerable windows of development can affect developing cells and their functions, including germ cells. Evidence shows that parental HFD intake prior to conception and/or during gestation and lactation could program the reproductive health of male offspring, ultimately resulting in impairment of the first as well as subsequent generations. In male offspring, adipose tissue and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis imbalance can impair the production of gonadotropins, leading to dysfunction of testosterone production and pubertal onset. The gonads can be directly impaired through oxidative stress, causing poor testosterone production and spermatogenesis; low sperm count, viability, and motility; and abnormal sperm morphology, which results in low sperm quality. Parental HFD intake could also be a risk factor for prostate hyperplasia and cancer in advanced age. It can impact the reproductive pattern of male offspring resulting in impairments in the subsequent generations. The investigation of semen quality must be extended to epidemiological and clinical studies of the male offspring of overweight and/or obese parents in order to improve the quality of human semen. This review addresses the effects of parental HFD intake on the reproductive parameters of male offspring and discusses the possible underlying mechanisms.

PMID:34445915 | DOI:10.1080/10408398.2021.1970509

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Could parental high-fat intake program the reproductive health of male offspring? A review - DocWire News

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Aug 28th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone
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