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Since she first won an international track event in 2009 at age 18, the South African middle-distance runner Caster Semenya has had every aspect of her body subjected to scrutiny. Semenya is one of many women around the world targeted by regulations that require women with naturally higher-than-typical levels of testosterone to submit to so-called sex testing and undergo unnecessary medical interventions to reduce hormone levels in order to keep competing.

Her case isnt an isolated incident: After being dropped at the last minute from an international competition in 2014 because sports officials deemed her testosterone too high for a woman, the Indian sprinter Dutee Chand challenged the regulations at the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne, Switzerland. Chand won her case, but World Athletics, the international governing body in global track and field, fought back with a similar regulation targeting middle-distance runners like Semenya. Those regulations were revised again during a case taken to the same court in 2019 by Semenya, who then lost. The new regulations remain in force for nowand they continue to do lasting damage to the careers and dignity of competitive athletes globally.

A new report on sex testing of women athletes published by Human Rights Watch in December 2020 sheds light on a decade of experiences from those who have been directly affected by this discriminatory practice. The report followed Semenyas announcement on Nov. 17 that she was taking her case to the European Court of Human Rights. It lays out in detail the human rights violations and personal harm caused by World Athletics regulations to women with naturally high testosterone, or differences of sex development, a medicalized term for intersex variations. People with any of a range of intersex variations have innate sex characteristics that have developed in ways that are atypical, and this puts them at particular risk of discrimination and other harm.

Moreover, women athletes from Africa and Asia are disproportionately harmed by World Athletics sex testing regulations, as they are less likely to have undergone routinized nonconsensual normalizing proceduressuch as genital surgery and removal of reproductive organsthat are often performed on infants and children with such variations in higher-income countries.

Community organizations and United Nations bodies have condemned these procedures as violations of human rights when they take place under coercive circumstances or before someone can meaningfully consentbut the sporting regulations impose those same medical norms and interventions on women who have previously escaped them.

The report highlights how these athletes are scrutinized according to white, Western norms of femininity; expectations about gender presentation and behavior, body hair, and genital appearance all bear a history of racialized assumptions. At the same time, they are given little information about their options and the harms of such medical interventions. These circumstances reflect the complex web of impossible choices the athletes are subject tochoices that damage careers and lives.

So why does World Athletics impose these regulations? The rationale appears to be rooted in the notion that testosterone is the key to improved athleticism and performance differences. Policymakers argued that women with natural testosterone above a certain, scientifically arbitrary, threshold have an advantage over their fellow competitors. But this ignores a broad and complex literature on the relationship between testosterone and athleticism that defies such simple claims and undermines their stated rationale. There is no single attribute that makes a great athlete; its a combination of genetics, training, resources, psyche, and so much more. The rationale also raises ethical concerns about treating some women differently from others.

In a 2018 academic article, we highlighted the ways in which testing women athletes testosterone levels violates the dignity and privacy of athletes. Those ensnared by these regulations are subjected to unnecessary medical assessment and proceduressuch as physical examinations of genitals, testing that can include imaging of internal organs, and chromosomal analysis. Depending on the results of these exams, they are then told that the only permissible ways they could compete are in the mens category or in a heretofore hypothetical third-sex category. Alternatively, they could challenge the regulations, switch to competing in different events not subject to the regulations, or exit competitive sports altogether.

But outright resistance to the testing is seen as futile. As one athlete told Human Rights Watch: I was told if you dont, you are going to be stopped from running. Asked if she wanted to undergo the tests, she said: If I had said No they would have told me, You have to. You have to. You have to. You have to. You dont have any other choice.

In all of these circumstances, athletes are given the false illusion of choice among an impossible set of alternatives. If their testosterone levels are found to exceed a specified threshold, these athletes must undergo unnecessary invasive medical interventions, such as taking drugs or having surgery to lower testosterone levels. And undergoing these medical procedures can have their own severe side effectssuch as fatigue, weakness, and sleep disturbanceswhich can be debilitating for everyone but especially athletes. Surgical options not only require lifelong hormone supplementation but can also compromise fertility. In some cases, these options fuel misconceptions about womens bodies and have influenced the athletes to question their own identities.

Whats more, the options to compete with men or in a third-sex category are best characterized as a stigmatizing red herring. Women subjected to these regulations are women, whose lifelong legal and social status should be respected. If an athlete does decide to compete in other athletics events, each switch requires a unique strategy, training regimen, and skill set, among other things. Halting competition, or quitting sports entirely, can lead to economic hardship, humiliation, and harm to mental and physical health.

If an athlete rejects each of these options, then a formal legal challenge is yet another possible path. Finding a forum for a legal challenge is complex as few courts have jurisdiction over World Athletics, a private association located in Monaco. The Court of Arbitration for Sport is tasked with hearing legal challenges to sports regulations.

Cases can cost upward of $1 million, an amount out of reach to affected women athletes who come from lower resource nations and backgrounds; the intersex organizations that advocate on issues such as these are similarly under-resourced. Moreover, the venue further limits access to effective remedy as the Court of Arbitration for Sport has a narrow scope for review that does not include international human rights law. Legal action also demands that athletes submit to public scrutiny of their most intimate private characteristics.

As Annet Negesa, a Ugandan runner who was ruled ineligible under the regulations and coerced into a medically unnecessary surgery, put it: The regulations are a trap.

The decades-old debate over sex testing of women athletes is tiresome and inherently sexist. Community organizations, the World Medical Association, U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, and now Human Rights Watch have each confirmed the harms that the regulations inflict, and they have called for them to be abandoned.

These are not the hypothetical damages of medals never won, but the actual damage of wounded bodies, livelihoods and life purposes stolen, identities and social and legal status litigated. A better approach would be to accept the inherent and natural diversity of women and amend the systems that both create sporting regulations and adjudicate them, to ensure that the human rights of athletes are fully respected.

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Women Athletes Subjected to 'Sex Testing' are Faced With Impossible Choices - Foreign Policy

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Feb 19th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

By IANS Feb 15, 2021

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Some people use the term "male menopause" to refer to hormonal changes that men experience as they get older.

Men experience symptoms resulting from a decrease in the male hormone called as "testosterone". This condition is referred to as andropause or in other words it is called as male menopause.

It affects up to 30 percent of men in their 50s and becomes more prevalent with age, says Dr Chandrika Kulkarni, Consultant Obstetrician Gynaecologist and fertility specialist.

"Unlike menopause in women, when hormone production stops completely, testosterone decline in men is a slower process. The testes, unlike the ovaries, do not run out of the substance it needs to make testosterone.

However, subtle changes in the function of the testes may occur as early as age 45 to 50 and more dramatically after the age of 70 in some men," the doctor tells IANSlife.

Male menopause differs from female menopause in several ways. Not all men experience andropause and also it doesn't involve a complete shutdown of the reproductive organs.

Sexual complications may arise as a result of lowered hormone levels. Male menopause can cause physical, sexual, and psychological problems. The symptoms typically worsen as one gets older, she warns.

Watch out for the symptoms

The doctor points out: "The symptom most associated with hypogonadism (low level of hormones) is low libido. Other manifestations of hypogonadism include: erectile dysfunction, decreased muscle mass and strength, increased body fat, decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis, and decreased vitality and depressed mood. Osteoporosis is twice more common in hypogonadal (low level of hormones) men as compared to eugonadal (normal level of hormones) men (6 vs 2.8 percent)."

How is Andropause diagnosed and what is its treatment? Dr Kulkarni answers:

It is recommended to test older men for low testosterone levels only if they have signs or symptoms. If an initial test shows low testosterone, the test should be repeated to confirm the results.

The initial treatment for symptoms of male menopause is making healthier lifestyle choices.

These lifestyle habits can benefit all men. After adopting these habits, men who are experiencing symptoms of male menopause may see a dramatic change in their overall health. It's normal to experience a decline in testosterone levels as one gets older.

For many men, the symptoms are manageable even without treatment. If the symptoms are cause hardship, consultation with the specialist is advised. They can provide recommendations to help manage or treat symptoms.

Hormone replacement therapy is another treatment option. However, testosterone replacement therapy has its own potential risks and side effects.

Replacing testosterone may worsen prostate cancer and increase the risk of heart disease.

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Have you heard of male menopause? Andropause explained by an expert - IOL

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Feb 19th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Up Market Research (UMR), one of the worlds prominent market research firms has released a new report on Testosterone Cypionate Market. The report contains crucial insights on the market which will support the clients to make the right business decisions. This research will help both existing and new aspirants for Testosterone Cypionate market to figure out and study market needs, market size, and competition. The report talks about the supply and demand situation, the competitive scenario, and the challenges for market growth, market opportunities, and the threats faced by key players.

The report also includes the impact of ongoing global crisis i.e. COVID-19 on the Testosterone Cypionate market and what the future holds for it. The published report is designed using a vigorous and thorough research methodology and Up Market Research (UMR) is also known for its data accuracy and granular market reports.

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A complete analysis of the competitive scenario of the Testosterone Cypionate market is depicted by the report. The report has a vast amount of data about the recent product and technological developments in the markets. It has a wide spectrum of analysis regarding the impact of these advancements on the markets future growth, wide-range of analysis of these extensions on the markets future growth.

Testosterone Cypionate market report tracks the data since 2015 and is one of the most detailed reports. It also contains data varying according to region and country. The insights in the report are easy to understand and include pictorial representations. These insights are also applicable in real-time scenarios.

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Components such as market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities for Testosterone Cypionate are explained in detail. Since the research team is tracking the data for the market from 2015, therefore any additional data requirement can be easily fulfilled.

Some of the prominent companies that are covered in this report:

PfizerCiplaSun PharmaceuticalTevaPerrigoHikma Pharmaceuticals

*Note: Additional companies can be included on request

The industry looks to be fairly competitive. To analyze any market with simplicity the market is fragmented into segments, such as its product type, application, technology, end-use industry, etc. Segmenting the market into smaller components helps in understanding the dynamics of the market with more clarity. Data is represented with the help of tables and figures that consist of a graphical representation of the numbers in the form of histograms, bar graphs, pie charts, etc. Another key component that is included in the report is the regional analysis to assess the global presence of the Testosterone Cypionate market.

Following is the gist of segmentation:

By Application:

Primary hypogonadismHypogonadotropic hypogonadismLate-onset hypogonadism

By Type:

200 mg/mL100 mg/mL

By Geographical Regions

Asia Pacific: China, Japan, India, and Rest of Asia PacificEurope: Germany, the UK, France, and Rest of EuropeNorth America: The US, Mexico, and CanadaLatin America: Brazil and Rest of Latin AmericaMiddle East & Africa: GCC Countries and Rest of Middle East & Africa

You can also go for a yearly subscription of all the updates on the Testosterone Cypionate market.

Reasons you should buy this report:

Below is the TOC of the report:

Executive Summary

Assumptions and Acronyms Used

Research Methodology

Testosterone Cypionate Market Overview

Testosterone Cypionate Supply Chain Analysis

Testosterone Cypionate Pricing Analysis

Global Testosterone Cypionate Market Analysis and Forecast by Type

Global Testosterone Cypionate Market Analysis and Forecast by Application

Global Testosterone Cypionate Market Analysis and Forecast by Sales Channel

Global Testosterone Cypionate Market Analysis and Forecast by Region

North America Testosterone Cypionate Market Analysis and Forecast

Latin America Testosterone Cypionate Market Analysis and Forecast

Europe Testosterone Cypionate Market Analysis and Forecast

Asia Pacific Testosterone Cypionate Market Analysis and Forecast

Middle East & Africa Testosterone Cypionate Market Analysis and Forecast

Competition Landscape

If you have any questions on this report, please reach out to us @ https://www.upmarketresearch.com/home/enquiry_before_buying/56465

About Up Market Research (UMR):

Up Market Research (UMR) has a vast experience in designing tailored market research reports in various industry verticals. We also have an urge to provide complete client satisfaction. We cover in-depth market analysis, which consists of producing lucrative business strategies for the new entrants and the emerging players of the market. We make sure that each report goes through intensive primary, secondary research, interviews, and consumer surveys before final dispatch. Our company provides market threat analysis, market opportunity analysis, and deep insights into the current market scenario.

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Feb 19th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

The combination of either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor plus a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) reduced levels of estradiol, a form of estrogen, more than tamoxifen alone in men diagnosed with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer, according to a small study.

Still, the men reported that the combination hormonal therapy affected their quality of life and sexual function.

The research was published online on Feb. 4, 2021, by JAMA Oncology. Read Efficacy of Endocrine Therapy for the Treatment of Breast Cancer in Men: Results from the MALE Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

About male breast cancerHormonal therapy and GnRHa medicinesAbout the studyWhat this means for you

While breast cancer in men is rare, it does happen. Fewer than 1% of all breast cancers are diagnosed in men. In 2021, about 2,670 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in men. For men, the lifetime risk of getting breast cancer is about 1 in 833.

Like breast cancer in women, breast cancer in men can be hormone-receptor-positive or hormone-receptor-negative, as well as HER2-positive or HER2-negative.

Because the number of cases of breast cancer in men is relatively small compared to the number of cases in women, there is a lack of information on male breast cancer in general, and there have been few studies focused specifically on treatments for male breast cancer.

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Estradiol is one of three estrogen hormones produced by the body. In men, about 15% to 25% of estradiol is produced by the testicles. The rest is made by the enzyme aromatase converting testosterone to estradiol.

Healthy estradiol levels in men help with bone maintenance and brain function, as well as controlling libido and erectile function. Men have naturally lower levels of estradiol than women.

Hormonal therapy medicines treat hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer in two ways:

There are several types of hormonal therapy medicines. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is one of the most well-known. Tamoxifen can be used to treat premenopausal and postmenopausal women, as well as men. Tamoxifen is taken orally as a pill or a liquid.

Aromatase inhibitors are another type of hormonal therapy. They include:

Aromatase inhibitors have been shown to be more effective at reducing the risk of recurrence (the cancer coming back) in postmenopausal women and are now used more often than tamoxifen to treat women whove gone through menopause.

GnRHa medicines lower the amount of sex hormones in the body. In women, they stop the ovaries from making estrogen and progesterone. In men, they stop the testicles from making testosterone. Lupron (chemical name: leuprolide), Trelstar (chemical name: triptorelin), and Zoladex (chemical name: goserelin) are all GnRHa medicines.

Because male breast cancer is so rare, its not clear which hormonal therapy medicine is the most effective for hormone-receptor-positive male breast cancer.

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The researchers wanted to do the study because its unknown how standard hormonal therapy treatment changes estradiol levels in men diagnosed with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Its also not clear how changing estradiol levels affects a mans sexual function and quality of life.

Done in Germany, the study included 56 men diagnosed with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer between October 2012 and May 2017:

The men were randomly assigned to get one of three hormonal therapy treatments for 6 months:

The researchers did not specify which GnRHa medicine the men were given.

The hormonal therapy treatment was given either before surgery, after surgery, or for metastatic disease.

After the 6 months of hormonal therapy were completed, all the men were prescribed tamoxifen alone.

The researchers took blood samples and had the men fill out questionnaires about their quality of life, sexual function, and other side effects three times during the study:

At the beginning of the study, before hormonal therapy treatment started, estradiol levels were similar between the three treatment groups, at about 27 nanograms per liter (ng/L) of blood.

After 3 months of hormonal therapy treatment, estradiol levels were:

At the end of the study, after 6 months of hormonal therapy treatment, estradiol levels were:

When the researchers analyzed the mens questionnaire responses, they found that men treated with either tamoxifen or Aromasin plus GnRHa reported a decrease in sexual function after 3 and 6 months of treatment.

At the beginning of the study, 18 men reported erectile dysfunction:

After 3 months of hormonal therapy treatment, 27 men reported erectile dysfunction:

After 6 months of hormonal therapy treatment, 29 men reported erectile dysfunction:

These differences in sexual function were statistically significant, which means they were likely due to the difference in treatment and not just because of chance.

When the researchers looked at the mens quality of life, they found that 59.6% of the men reported decreased quality of life at the beginning of the study. After 3 months of hormonal therapy treatment, 75% of the men reported decreased quality of life, while 67.4% of the men reported decreased quality of life after 6 months of hormonal therapy treatment. These differences were not statistically significant.

The addition of GnRHa to [an aromatase inhibitor] or tamoxifen leads to a more profound suppression of estradiol, which is known to increase survival in premenopausal women, the researchers wrote in their conclusion. It seems that male [breast cancer] can be treated according to premenopausal [breast cancer] due to the comparable observations of increased estradiol suppression. The addition of GnRHa should be therefore reconsidered as a treatment option in high-risk patients and should be weighed against increased adverse effects.

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If youre a man who has been diagnosed with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer, this study offers important information that you and your doctor can discuss when planning your treatment.

While the study is small and more research needs to be done, the results offer good first insights on the differences in the effects of hormonal therapy on male hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.

Because male breast cancer is so rare, it may be a number of years before a study can enroll enough participants to offer more definitive results.

Its important that all men be aware of any signs that might indicate breast cancer, including:

Because many men dont consider the possibility that they may develop breast cancer, they may wait a year or longer to talk to their doctor after noticing a breast symptom. This means the cancer is diagnosed at a later stage.

For more information, visit the Breastcancer.org pages on Male Breast Cancer.

If you're a man who has been diagnosed with breast cancer and would like to talk with others, join the Breastcancer.org Discussion Board forum Male Breast Cancer.

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Written by: Jamie DePolo, senior editor

Published on February 16, 2021 at 10:08 AM

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Feb 19th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Worldwide Market Reports have recently published Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market report. This report offers an overall scope of the market which includes future supply and demand scenarios, changing market trends, high growth opportunities, and in-depth analysis of the future prospects of the market. The report discusses the competitive data analysis of emerging and leading market players. Further, it offers comprehensive data analysis on risk factors, challenges, and possible new routes in the market.

The report includes CAGR, market share, revenue, gross margin, value, volume, and other key market figures that give an accurate picture of the growth of the Testosterone Replacement Therapy market. This report includes an assessment of various drivers, government policies, technological innovations, upcoming technologies, opportunities, market risks, restraints, market barriers, challenges, trends, competitive landscape, and segments which gives an exact picture of the growth of the global Testosterone Replacement Therapy market.

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In the global Testosterone Replacement Therapy market report, we have discussed individual strategies, followed by company profiles of providers of Testosterone Replacement Therapy solutions. The Competition Landscape section has been included in the report to provide readers with a dashboard view and company market share analysis of key players operating in the global Testosterone Replacement Therapy market.

The Testosterone Replacement Therapy market report offers clear-cut information about the key business giants Market:Endo International, AbbVie, Eli lilly, Pfizer, Actavis (Allergan), Bayer, Novartis, Teva, Mylan, Upsher-Smith, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Kyowa Kirin, Acerus Pharmaceuticals,

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Size & Share, by Regions:

In terms of region, the Testosterone Replacement Therapy market has been segmented into North America (U.S. and Canada), Europe (U.K., Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and Rest of Europe), Asia Pacific (China, India, Japan, Australia & New Zealand, and Rest of Asia Pacific), Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, and Rest of Latin America), and Middle East & Africa (GCC Countries, South Africa, and Rest of Middle East & Africa)

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Strategic Frameworks

The study equips businesses and anyone interested in the market to frame broad strategic frameworks. This has become more important than ever, given the current uncertainty due to COVID-19. The study deliberates on consultations to overcome various such past disruptions and foresees new ones to boost preparedness. The frameworks help businesses plan their strategic alignments for recovery from such disruptive trends. Further, analysts atWMR help you break down the complex scenario and bring resiliency in uncertain times.

By Types

Gels, Injections, Patches, Others,

By Application

Hospitals, Clinics, Others,

What Knowledge Does This Record Comprise?

Key Questions Addressed by the Report:

To speak to our analyst for a discussion on the above findings:https://www.worldwidemarketreports.com/quiry/568815

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Should Reflect A Holistic Expansion In The Coming Year: Endo International, AbbVie, Eli lilly NeighborWebSJ -...

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Feb 19th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Carissa MooreProfessional Surfer

The surfing career of Carissa Moore four-time World Surfing League womens champion can be traced back to Irish dancing in her living room. Her father, Chris Moore, remembers her avidly watching an Irish dance troupe on TV and mimicking the moves surprisingly well.

Did someone help you with that? he asked, and she replied, No, I just watched.

Her dad found that Moores innate sense of movement translated really well to the ocean. Although he had no way of predicting her four world titles at that early age, it was already clear to him that she would be a pro surfer. He recalls thinking, Either Im crazy, or this is rather obvious.

Surfing was something fun that Moore did with her dad since before the age of 5. Then at 10 or 12 she says she remembers having a conversation with him about commitment and sacrifice. A where do you want to go with this? kind of talk.

Moore began competing as an amateur in middle school, and continued through most of high school while at Punahou School. She competed on the WSL Championship Tour as a professional during her senior year and ever since, coming away with world titles in 2011, 13, 15 and 19.

Being a woman in a historically male-dominated sport is something Moore certainly remembers affecting her early days as a surfer. There are a lot of guys out there, theres a lot of testosterone. In the early days, before I kind of earned my respect, I think there were times where I was not always welcome.

Her experience as one of the only young girls at surf lineups is part of what prompted her in 2018 to start her foundation, Moore Aloha. Although the foundation is on a hiatus due to the pandemic, it has spearheaded a number of surfing-geared events, including intermediate and beginner training sessions, an international exchange and beach cleanup.

Moore got the idea for her organization in 2018 at a surf camp run by Hurley, one of her sponsors. There were like 30 little girls that showed up and they were all just like eyes wide open and so excited to just absorb anything you threw their way.

She says she remembers thinking, I would love to use surfing as a platform to bring young girls together to inspire them, help them to chase their passions.

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20 for the Next 20: Carissa Moore - Hawaii Business Magazine

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Feb 19th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Studies have shown that men over the age of 65 may benefit from taking the hormone testosterone. According toDr. Mirkin.comstudies have shown that testosterone increases bone density, raises hemoglobin levels in men with anemia, and improves sexual function. Reviews were mixed on whether testosterone improved heart health, however.

According to a study published in JAMA, testosterone significantly increased plaque in the arteries that lead to the heart. However, another study found that using testosterone gel for threeyears reduced the rate of heart attacks in men by 25%.

Dr. David B. Samadhi, a board-certified urologist, a Newsmax contributor, the director of Mens Health and Urologic Oncology at St. Francis Hospital in Roselyn, New York, and the author ofThe Ultimate MANual: Dr. Samadhis Guide to Mens Health and Wellness, tells Newsmaxthat the hormone is quite often overused because of its macho man association.

Of course, testosterone is a necessary and potent chemical messenger that indeed directly influences many physiological processes in a mans body, Samadi explains. Testosterone influences mens sex drive, bone mass, fat distribution, and muscle mass and strength, among other things. What man doesnt want to look strong, muscular, and ready for sex at the drop of a hat?

But the expert warns that advertisers understand this and play upon this notion by touting unproven products.

I remember a 2014 Time magazine cover story titled, Manopause that featured aprovocative cover and delved into the clever marketing and tons of money spent into making men believe that more testosterone is their quick fix and best remedy for remaining youthful and virile.

Thats why on any given day of the year, you see or hear commercials hawking a testosterone supplement promising to bring back mens youthful vigor, says Samadi.

As a urologist and prostate cancer surgeon, my advice to men is stay away from any spa, TV ads or any nonmedical person selling supplements for low T, he says. Testing testosterone and getting an accurate measurement can be tricky since levels fluctuate during the day.Only a doctor should be checking a mans testosterone levels. Testosterone levels should be checked before 9:00 a.m. when levels are their highest. Also, two tests are necessary to check for accuracy.

Samadi says that testosterone deficiency may or may not have symptoms.

But I can tell you, men with low T are like a car thats run out of gas they may be depressed, lack energy, motivation, and self-confidence, have reduced muscle mass and increased fat mass, loss of body hair, hot flashes, fewer spontaneous erections or difficulty sustaining erections, and have little interest in sex, he adds.

For any man who does have low testosterone, the benefits of hormone replacement therapy usually outweigh the risk., advises the expert. When men are selected correctly for using this therapy, it can be very helpful. Testosterone therapy for these men can help maintain muscle mass, slow osteoporosis, boost energy and stamina, and bring back their love life. But, I stress, its critical these men must be under surveillance with their doctor. Testosterone levels must be checked regularly as one possible side effect of testosterone therapy is it could stimulate the growth of prostate cancer cells.

Men who think they have low T, should talk to their doctor, get tested, and if therapy is needed, follow-up with their doctor periodically to have testosterone levels checked making sure the therapy is not causing any health problems, says Samadhi.

2021 NewsmaxHealth. All rights reserved.

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Expert Reveals Key Information That Men Need to Know About Testosterone - KMJ Now

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Feb 14th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Important social changes often begin with a few individuals holding novel, unpopular opinions. However, holding such minority positions runs contrary to many psychosocial tendencies in humans that lead us to go with the flow and adopt or defend views held by the majority.

One reason for this is that minority positions are (perceived as) socially riskier. The payoff for being the only one who knew better is substantial, but if ones position turns out to be wrong, it seems all the more foolish given that everybody else knew better. Majority positions, on the other hand, carry low social risk: whether right or wrong, you dont stand out.

To better understand what leads certain individuals to adopt minority positions despite the social risks, researchers from the University of Hildesheim in Germany have been studying the role of testosterone as a social hormone in position-taking.

In their new study, published in the journal Social Psychological and Personality Science, 250 adults (160 females, 90 males) were recruited to participate, ostensibly investigating the role of hormones in text processing. In actuality, individuals were presented with a persuasive message regarding, for example, the benefits of a new construction project and then told that either 15% or 85% of the local population was in its favor.

The researchers decided to look at basal testosterone (BT) levels, which have been associated with risk-taking, but also general immunity to social influence. While the researchers expected BT to predict a greater tendency to adopt minority positions compared to those with average or low BT, it was unclear going into the study which of the two effects of testosterone (risk-taking or disregard for social factors) mediated the relationship.

As expected, the results indicate that high BT individuals are more likely to adopt minority positions than low BT individuals. More importantly, however, the results indicate that individuals with high BT recognize (rather than disregard) the risks associated with a minority position, and opt for them anyway boldly rolling the social dice, as it were.

If high BT individuals merely disregarded the social aspects of the decision, they should be no more or less inclined to agree with the majority position than their low BT counterparts. This was not the case, however there was a clear association between higher BT and being more likely to take a minority position than low BT individuals.

The importance of minority positions for social change is hard to overstate. Upsetting the status quo is what leads to social (and political, financial, even scientific) change. While the present study serves as a preliminary investigation onlyfuture researchers, as the authors note, will want to directly measure risk perception and/or manipulate testosterone levelsit nonetheless provides important evidence for the role of testosterone (and individuals as a catalyst of social change.

The article, Basal Testosterone Renders Individuals More Receptive to Minority Positions, was authored by M. Germar and A. Mojzisch.

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Feb 14th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Some people use the term male menopause to refer to hormonal changes that men experience as they get older. Men experience symptoms resulting from a decrease in the male hormone called as testosterone. This condition is referred to as andropause or in other words it is called as male menopause. It affects up to 30 per cent of men in their 50s and becomes more prevalent with age, says Dr Chandrika Kulkarni, Consultant Obstetrician Gynecologist and fertility specialist; Cloudnine Group of Hospitals.

Unlike menopause in women, when hormone production stops completely, testosterone decline in men is a slower process. The testes, unlike the ovaries, do not run out of the substance it needs to make testosterone. However, subtle changes in the function of the testes may occur as early as age 45 to 50 and more dramatically after the age of 70 in some men, the doctor said.

Male menopause differs from female menopause in several ways. Not all men experience andropause and also it doesn't involve a complete shut-down of the reproductive organs. Sexual complications may arise as a result of lowered hormone levels. Male menopause can cause physical, sexual, and psychological problems. The symptoms typically worsen as one gets older, she warns.

Watch out for the symptoms: The doctor points out: "The symptom most associated with hypogonadism (low level of hormones) is low libido. Other manifestations of hypogonadism include: erectile dysfunction, decreased muscle mass and strength, increased body fat, decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis, and decreased vitality and depressed mood. Osteoporosis is twice more common in hypogonadal (low level of hormones) men as compared to eugonadal (normal level of hormones) men (6 vs 2.8 per cent)."

How is Andropause diagnosed and what is its treatment? Dr Kulkarni answers:

It is recommended to test older men for low testosterone levels only if they have signs or symptoms. If an initial test shows low testosterone, the test should be repeated to confirm the results.

The initial treatment for symptoms of male menopause is making healthier lifestyle choices. Healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, reducing stress levels. These lifestyle habits can benefit all men.

After adopting these habits, men who are experiencing symptoms of male menopause may see a dramatic change in their overall health. It's normal to experience a decline in testosterone levels as one gets older. For many men, the symptoms are manageable even without treatment. If the symptoms are cause hardship, consultation with the specialist is advised. They can provide recommendations to help manage or treat symptoms.

Hormone replacement therapy is another treatment option. However, testosterone replacement therapy has its own potential risks and side effects. Replacing testosterone may worsen prostate cancer and increase the risk of heart disease.

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Like women, men too suffer from menopause, its called Andropause - Free Press Journal

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Feb 14th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone

Mood swings, irritability, and lack of energy are not just the signs of menopause in females but males too. Yes, they also go through this phase. Male menopause is commonly known as andropause. It occurs due to changes in the level of the male hormone called testosterone. Its level drops with age. Testosterone is produced in a mans testes and does more than just fueling his sexual drive. This hormone keeps men mentally and physically energetic. It also maintains their muscle mass and helps during a fight-or-flight situation. Also Read - Early Menopause May Cause Type 2 Diabetes

Male menopause is different than female menopause in many ways. Firstly, not all men experience this phase in life. Secondly, their reproductive organs do not shut down completely after hitting menopause, unlike women. In an interview with IANSlife, Dr. Chandrika Kulkarni, Consultant Obstetrician Gynecologist and fertility specialist; Cloudnine Group of Hospitals said, Unlike menopause in women, when hormone production stops completely, testosterone decline in men is a slower process. The testes, unlike the ovaries, do not run out of the substance it needs to make testosterone. However, subtle changes in the function of the testes may occur as early as age 45 to 50 and more dramatically after the age of 70 in some men. Also Read - Early Menstruation Linked to Increased Menopause Symptoms

Male menopause is characterized by signs including decreased motivation, difficulty concentrating, low energy, increased body fat, erectile dysfunction, infertility, reduced libido, reduced muscle mass etc. Also Read - Did You Know Males Hit Menopause Too? Know Everything About This Condition

It is recommended to test older men for low testosterone levels only if they have signs or symptoms. If an initial test shows low testosterone, the test should be repeated to confirm the results. The initial treatment for symptoms of male menopause is making healthier lifestyle choices like following a healthy diet, doing exercise regularly, taking adequate sleep, reducing stress level etc.

These lifestyle habits can benefit all men. After adopting these habits, men who are experiencing symptoms of male menopause may see a dramatic change in their overall health. Its normal to experience a decline in testosterone levels as one gets older. For many men, the symptoms are manageable even without treatment. If the symptoms are cause hardship, consultation with the specialist is advised. They can provide recommendations to help manage or treat symptoms.

Hormone replacement therapy is another treatment option. However, testosterone replacement therapy has its own potential risks and side effects. Replacing testosterone may worsen prostate cancer and increase the risk of heart disease.

With Inputs From IANS

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Like Women, Men Hit Menopause Too - All You Need to Know - India.com

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Feb 14th, 2021 | Filed under Testosterone
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