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Tobacco use can have far-reaching consequences for both people who smoke it and those who inhale it passively from the environment. It can impede the functioning of the lungs, heart, neck, and throat, leading to the formation of malignant tumours. As a result, smoking can have an effect on reproductive function.

Both active and passive smoking can have an impact on a woman's reproductive function and organs. This translates to ovaries-related diseases that affect fertility, pregnancy advancement, and, ultimately, childbirth. Dr Kshitiz Murdia, CEO and Co-Founder of Indira IVF, discusses the effects of smoking on the ovaries and pregnancy.

Smoking Impacts Ovaries

To understand the way in which ovarian function gets compromised due to smoking, we have to comprehend the following:

Hormonal Imbalance: Hormone secretion in the human body takes place like a cascade wherein one factor affects another. Tobacco chemicals interfere with the function of glands that produce hormones related to reproduction, such as the thyroid, hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal. This increases levels of the stress hormone cortisol and the male hormone testosterone in the female body; both of these have been associated with womens infertility. Moreover, hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, Anti-Mllerian Hormone (AMH), and prolactin are reduced in quantity, which negatively impacts fertility.

Ovarian & Menstrual Conditions: It has been widely reported that hormonal imbalance can lead to conditions related to the ovaries and consequently, the menstrual cycle. For example, higher-than-normal levels of testosterone in the womans body have been linked to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterised by irregular ovulation and menstruation, making natural conception difficult. Low levels of estrogen and progesterone also lead to an irregular menstrual cycle.

Additionally, lowering of Anti-Mllerian Hormone (AMH) indicates that the number of good quality eggs available for conception is very limited in number as smoking damages the genetic composition of gametes.

Menopause: Menopause is the complete cessation of the menstrual cycle which can start anywhere between the late 40s in women to their 50s. It is associated with the unavailability of eggs for ovulation. Smoking speeds up the rate at which eggs get damaged in the ovaries, dwindling their numbers and, hence, causing early menopause. Natural pregnancy is not possible after menopause.

Smoking Impacts Pregnancy

Smoking can impact the initial stage of conceiving a baby as well as the progression of a pregnancy.

Pregnancy Complications: Higher chances for ectopic pregnancies which is the implantation of the embryo in places other than the uterus as well as spontaneous abortion, and miscarriage have been reported in women who smoke.

Foetal Development: Carbon monoxide generated by smoking is found to be harmful to the central nervous system (CNS); it also impairs the development of the baby inside the uterus, causing its stunted growth, and also increases the incidence of pre-term birth. Moreover, smoking during pregnancy can lead to tissue damage in the lungs and brain.

Genetic Anomalies And Birth Defects: Since smoking can hamper the genetic quality of eggs, those that are fertilised may lead to the birth of children with genetic anomalies such as Downs syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome. Women who smoke are also more likely than their counterparts to deliver children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate.

Complications After Birth: Children of mothers who smoke have been found to report low birth weight at the time of delivery, even at full-term. It has also been found that they are more likely to develop disabilities and other complications related to their health as they grow up, such as obesity, diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is critical that women limit or stop using tobacco, keeping in mind their own health as well as the health of children they may have in the future. To aid in the quitting process, nicotine gum or patches, as well as prescription drugs can be used as a temporary replacement. This improves the female reproductive factor and helps preserve undamaged eggs for a natural pregnancy. In certain cases, natural pregnancy may be difficult to achieve. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) methods including in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can help in these situations. It is important to note that while ART treatment might be beneficial, the damage caused by tobacco to a person's overall health can affect the success of the procedure.

Also Read: Here Are 6 Stress-Relieving Ideas To Make Your Prenatal Phase Easy Breezy

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Jun 8th, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone

Womens Health Research at Yale today announced funding for three new studies. They include one of the first studies to examine sex differences in treating neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), a rare form of cancer often found in the gastrointestinal tract. The second study will examine the effect of gender-affirming hormone therapy during adolescence on bone development. The third study will utilize machine-learning and brain imaging techniques to understand the mechanisms through which a particular genetic variant increases the risk for developing Alzheimers disease more significantly for women than men.

The more we investigate the role of sex and gender on our health, the more we learn how differences can lead to quite large impacts, said WHRY Director Carolyn M. Mazure, PhD. These new studies explore critical features of health and disease to ensure that everyone has the best health care throughout life. Such care starts with research that considers all aspects of biology and behavior that make us unique.

The new studies ask significant questions with practical consequences for health. Can analyses of a large U.S. database and multiple completed clinical trials in patients with NENs identify sex-based differences in treatment-related side effects? And, can these studies help inform additional research to identify changes in DNA that are associated with these side effects? Can data collected using state-of-the-art bone density equipment and analysis techniques guide efforts to minimize short- and long-term risks for bone growth to adolescent individuals undergoing gender affirming hormone therapy? And can newly designed neuroimaging techniques successfully map the relationships among brain circuitry, sex, aging, and cognitive task performance to inform the development of new targeted prevention strategies and therapies for the estimated 15% to 25% of women who carry the single greatest known genetic risk factor for Alzheimers disease?

This years Wendy U. and Thomas C. Naratil Pioneer Award has been granted to Dr. Pamela Kunz. With co-funding from Yale Cancer Center, Dr. Kunz will study sex-based differences in adverse events associated with treating neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs).

About 12,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with an NEN every year, a number that has been increasing for years as diagnostic techniques have improved and awareness has grown. Though rare by incidence, NENs are the second most prevalent gastrointestinal cancer after colorectal cancer, due largely to their slow growth. Research has shown that treatment-related toxicities are common among patients treated for these cancers, contributing to poor quality of life, worse outcomes, and increased costs both to the patient and the health care system. These challenges are especially important in chronic cancers such as NENs.

And while large population-based studies suggest that there are sex differences in the number of patients diagnosed with NENs each year, where the cancer starts, and survival rates, there have been few studies dedicated to the role sex plays in the side effects of treating these tumors.

One such study showed that female patients undergoing treatment for NENs had twice the rate of low platelets (cells that help blood clot) and five times the risk of low white blood cells (the cells that fight infection). These increased side effects have the potential for many negative downstream consequences for female patients involving quality of life, financial costs, and outcomes, particularly if treatments are interrupted or doses reduced.

Dr. Kunz, an oncologist, associate professor of medicine at Yale School of Medicine, and director of the Center for Gastrointestinal Cancers at Smilow Cancer Hospital and Yale Cancer Center, is utilizing a large U.S. database of patient information to provide an important biological window into such sex differences in NEN treatment side effects. Her team will also identify candidate genes or common gene variations that are associated with the risk of a single toxicity from treatment or a cluster of related toxicities.

By identifying sex differences and genetic predictors of these side effects, researchers can then tailor treatments to reduce the toxicity of the treatments and improve survival rates.

As a female doctor who treats gastrointestinal cancers and an advocate for gender equity, I am eager to apply the lens of equity to my own research, said Kunz, who also serves as the vice chief of diversity, equity, and inclusion for the medical oncology section at Yale Cancer Center. If we confirm an increase in treatment-related side effects for female patients with NENs, we can propose proactive steps to better understand and lower these risks.

The sex hormones estrogen and testosterone are critical regulators of bone health, contributing in different but complementary ways to the development of bone strength and structure during puberty. The typical patterns and timing of pubertal development are significantly altered in transgender youth who undergo gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) during adolescence, and the effects of these hormonal regimens on the process of bone development are not fully understood.

Transgender youth, particularly youth transitioning from male to female, may have delays in development of overall bone strength that improve over time.

However, overall bone strength reflects a basic, single approximation of a dynamic process that can vary greatly among individuals. Newer assessments of bone structure can now account for variations in bone strength within the bone, which may help to predict fracture risk over time. But there are limited data for these newer measurements to determine what might be usual in youth undergoing gender-affirming hormone therapy, an increasingly common but understudied treatment.

In a survey published by The Trevor Project in 2019, nearly 2% of youth identified as transgender, more than double a 2017 estimate from a survey of adults. And while not every transgender individual undergoes gender-affirming hormone therapy, young people identifying as transgender and their families need more information about the effects of GAHT on bone health to minimize risk and improve long-term health outcomes.

With a grant from WHRY, Dr. Stuart Weinzimer, professor of pediatrics at Yale School of Medicine, will work with youth extensively screened psychologically and medically through Yales Pediatrics Gender Program prior to choosing GAHT. Dr. Weinzimer will utilize the latest and most sophisticated measures of bone health to characterize the changes in the density, quality, and architecture of bones as well as the metabolic markers of bone health over the first year of gender-affirming hormone treatment in transgender youth. In addition, Dr. Weinzimers team will identify demographic, clinical, and behavioral variables such as diet and exercise that may facilitate or interfere with normal skeletal health in this population as they age.

We are focusing on the first year of treatment because this is the time of maximal alterations in the hormonal environment, Weinzimer said. This study will not only collect important data on individuals assigned female at birth and those who are affirmed in the female gender undergoing treatment but will also guide providers in developing hormone treatment regimens that minimize short- and long-term risks and optimize skeletal health over time.

Weinzimer is recruiting transgender adolescents prior to initiating either testosterone or estrogen treatment, analyzing bone health within each group from baseline measurements through the end of the year and between the two groups receiving different hormones. He will also assess the potential effects of prior use of puberty blockers on biological markers of bone health at the beginning of the study and after one year.

These data will ultimately help us to understand if current treatments are effective in optimizing skeletal health when initiating affirming hormone therapies and the role played by non-pharmacological influences, such as physical activity and diet, in the trajectories of these metrics over time, Weinzimer said. Given the increasing number of adolescents undergoing gender-affirming treatments, it is vital to understand how these therapies either increase or mitigate risk so that we can provide informed counseling and identify potential interventions."

About two-thirds of the six million people affected by Alzheimers disease (AD) in the United States are women. The reasons for this gender difference include the average longer lifespan of women as well as social determinants of health that are not as easily accessed by women, such as higher education, opportunities for physical fitness, and stimulating employment which all provide protective benefits for brain health as we age. But research continues to reveal the role of biological factors as well.

For example, a genetic variant of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene on chromosome 19, known as the APOE-4 allele, accounts for up to 50% of genetic risk for Alzheimers disease. APOE helps to create a protein involved in carrying cholesterol and other types of fat through the bloodstream. Women who carry one or two copies of this allele (people inherit one APOE allele from each parent) face a four- to twelvefold increased risk of Alzheimers disease as they age. In comparison, men who carry just one APOE-4 allele have little or no increased risk.

Approximately 25% of the U.S. population carries at least one APOE-4 allele. But we only have limited understanding of how this genetic variant interacts with brain connections to increase womens vulnerability to AD.

With a two-year WHRY grant, Dr. Carolyn Anne Fredericks is using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a new technique developed at Yale by Dr. Todd Constable, director of MRI Research, and colleagues, to understand the functional impact of APOE-4 on the brains of women who develop Alzheimers disease and create new opportunities for targeted therapies. Known as connectome-based predictive modeling, the technique provides a map of connections within the brain to match with non-imaging biological markers associated with a predictor of interest, such as a behavior or a gene. For this study, the researchers will seek robust predictors for the presence of an APOE-4 allele as well as short-term memory performance and compare the results for women and men.

We dont yet understand whether there are specific aspects of brain connectivity that predict poorer memory test performance in women, as opposed to men, and whether these are affected by the inclusion of other variables, such as level of education, said Dr. Fredericks, an assistant professor of neurology and a clinician specializing in neurodegenerative disorders. Gaining this knowledge would motivate future work targeting these connections for future therapy, whether behavioral or drug-based.

Previous neuroimaging studies attempting to address the relationship between sex, aging, and cognitive task performance have been hampered by relevantly small datasets with limited power and capacity to generalize to larger populations, as well as analytical techniques that are not often validated and have limited predictive power.

Dr. Fredericks will access a large database of individuals who are cognitively healthy yet have abnormal Alzheimers protein build up in their brains as documented by a specialized positron emission tomography (PET) scan. In addition to APOE genotype, the database also includes extensive health information and MRI data. She will use connectome-based predictive modeling to avoid over-fitting to any specific data set and increase the likelihood findings will be applicable to larger populations.

We believe that this work has the potential to inform the development of new targeted therapies for the 15 to 25% of women carry at least one 4 allele, Fredericks said. As well as for women with poorer short-term memory performance, particularly related to lower cognitive reserve, who are at future risk of Alzheimers disease.

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WHRY Funds Studies on Sex Differences in Treating Gastrointestinal Cancers, Bone Health in Transgender Youth, and the Greater Risk for Alzheimer's...

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Jun 8th, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone

JATENZO is the first FDA-approved oral softgel for testosterone replacement therapy in adult males who have deficient testosterone due to certain medical conditions

Clarus plans to list this patent in FDAsOrange Book, which would bring the total number of Orange Book-listed patents covering JATENZO to eight

NORTHBROOK, Ill., May 18, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Clarus Therapeutics Holdings, Inc. (Clarus) (Nasdaq:CRXT), a pharmaceutical company dedicated to providing solutions to unmet medical needs by advancing androgen and metabolic therapies for men and women, today announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has issued a new patent for claims that cover Clarus oral testosterone replacement product, JATENZO (testosterone undecanoate).

Patent No. 11,331,325 entitled Pharmaceutical Delivery Systems for Hydrophobic Drugs and Compositions Comprising Same covers Clarus commercialized product, JATENZO. The new patent will expire in January 2027.

This new patent further reinforces our already impressive intellectual property portfolio for JATENZO, said Dr. Robert Dudley, President and Chief Executive Officer of Clarus. We believe that having eight patents listed in FDAs Orange Book underscores our multi-pronged strategy for success in the marketplace by protecting this important asset.

About Male Hypogonadism Male hypogonadism is a condition that results when the testes do not produce enough testosterone. Symptoms associated with male hypogonadism can include depression, decreased sex drive, decreased muscle mass, and decreased bone density, among others. An estimated 20 million men in the United States have hypogonadism, with approximately six million patients diagnosed. Treatments for male hypogonadism may include testosterone replacement therapy.

About Clarus Therapeutics Holdings, Inc. Clarus Therapeutics Holdings, Inc. is a pharmaceutical company with expertise in developing androgen and metabolic therapies for men and women including potential therapies for orphan indications. Clarus first commercial product is JATENZO (testosterone undecanoate). For more information, visit and Follow us on Twitter ( @ClarusThera ) and LinkedIn ( Clarus Therapeutics ).

Clarus Forward-Looking Statements Certain statements in this press release constitute forward-looking statements for purposes of the federal securities laws. The words anticipate, believe, contemplate, continue, could, estimate, expect, intends, may, might, plan, possible, potential, predict, project, should, will, would and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Clarus forward-looking statements in this press release include, but are not limited to, statements regarding listing the new patent in the FDAs Orange Book, the timing of the expiration of the new patent and the effect of the new patent on the JATENZO patent portfolio. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that Clarus has anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond Clarus control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risks associated with pharmaceutical development, risks associated with Clarus financial position, and those factors described under the heading Risk Factors in Clarus annual report on 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC) on March31, 2022, and those that are included in any of Clarus future filings with the SEC. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of Clarus assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. Some of these risks and uncertainties may in the future be amplified by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and there may be additional risks that Clarus considers immaterial, or which are unknown. It is not possible to predict or identify all such risks. Clarus forward-looking statements only speak as of the date they are made, and Clarus does not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.

JATENZOis a registered trademark of Clarus Therapeutics Holdings, Inc.

Clarus Contact: Kara Stancell Vice President, Investor Relations & Corporate Communications (847) 562-4300 x 206


Indication JATENZO (testosterone undecanoate) capsules, CIII, is an androgen indicated for testosterone replacement therapy in adult males for conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone:

Primary hypogonadism (congenital or acquired): testicular failure due to cryptorchidism, bilateral torsion, orchitis, vanishing testis syndrome, orchiectomy, Klinefelter syndrome, chemotherapy, or toxic damage from alcohol or heavy metals. These men usually have low serum testosterone concentrations and gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], luteinizing hormone [LH]) above the normal range.Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (congenital or acquired): gonadotropin or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) deficiency or pituitary-hypothalamic injury from tumors, trauma, or radiation. These men have low testosterone serum concentrations but have gonadotropins in the normal or low range.

Limitation of use Safety and efficacy of JATENZO in males less than 18 years old have not been established.



JATENZO can cause blood pressure (BP) increases that can increase the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and cardiovascular death.Before initiating JATENZO, consider the patients baseline cardiovascular risk and ensure blood pressure is adequately controlled.Periodically monitor for and treat new-onset hypertension or exacerbations of pre-existing hypertension and re-evaluate whether the benefits of JATENZO outweigh its risks in patients who develop cardiovascular risk factors or cardiovascular disease on treatment.Due to this risk, use JATENZO only for the treatment of men with hypogonadal conditions associated with structural or genetic etiologies.

CONTRAINDICATIONS JATENZO is contraindicated in men with breast cancer or known or suspected prostate cancer. JATENZO is contraindicated in women who are pregnant as testosterone may cause fetal harm.


Check hematocrit prior to initiation and every 3 months while a patient is on JATENZO and if hematocrit becomes elevated, stop JATENZO until hematocrit decreases to an acceptable level. If hematocrit increases after JATENZO is restarted, stop permanently.Monitor patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treated with androgens due to an increased risk for worsening signs and symptoms of BPH.Venous thromboembolic events (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), have been reported in patients using testosterone replacement products like JATENZO. Evaluate patients with signs or symptoms consistent with DVT or PE and, if a VTE is suspected, discontinue JATENZO and initiate appropriate workup and management.Testosterone has been subject to abuse, typically at doses higher than recommended for the approved indication and in combination with other anabolic androgenic steroids.Large doses of androgens can suppress spermatogenesis by feedback inhibition of pituitary FSH. Inform patients of this risk before prescribing JATENZO.Prolonged use of high doses of methyltestosterone has been associated with serious hepatic adverse events. JATENZO is not known to cause these adverse events; however, patients should be instructed to report any signs of hepatic dysfunction and JATENZO should be discontinued while the cause is evaluated.Edema, with or without congestive heart failure, may be a serious complication in patients with pre-existing cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease. In addition to discontinuation of the drug, diuretic therapy may be required.Gynecomastia may develop and persist in patients being treated for hypogonadism.Sleep apnea may occur in some patients, especially those with risk factors such as obesity or chronic lung disease.Changes in the serum lipid profile may require dose adjustment of lipid-lowering drugs or discontinuation of testosterone therapy. Monitor the lipid profile periodically, particularly after starting testosterone therapy.Use JATENZO with caution in cancer patients at risk of hypercalcemia. Monitor serum calcium concentration regularly during treatment with JATENZO in these patients.Androgens, including JATENZO, may decrease concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin, resulting in decreased total T4 serum concentrations and increased resin uptake of T3 and T4. Free thyroid hormone concentrations remain unchanged, however, and there is no clinical evidence of thyroid dysfunction.Depression and suicidal ideation have been reported in patients treated with JATENZO in clinical trials.

ADVERSE EVENTS The most common adverse events of JATENZO (incidence 2%) are headache (5%), increased hematocrit (5%), hypertension (4%), decreased HDL (3%), and nausea (2%).

These are not all of the risks associated with JATENZO. For more information, click here for full Prescribing Information, including BOXED WARNING on increases in blood pressure. You can also obtain information regarding JATENZO at

2022 Clarus Therapeutics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone

Those are just the well-known men who have talked about hormone therapies, of course. Speculation surrounds middle-aged rich guys like Jeff Bezos, who is rumored to be an investor in a buzzed-about anti-aging startup and seems to be aging in reverse into Billionaire Mr. Clean, with viral fit pics to match. (For the record, people close to Bezos attribute his transformation strictly to diet and exercise.)

In any case, it's not just the rich and famous: Doctor-approved doping is gaining ground among the everyday guy.

Youd be surprised with how many people are on hormone therapies, says Dr. Jessie Cheung, a dermatologist whose focus, in part, is on these treatments. You look, feel, perform, think, recover, and age better.

Testosterone is associated with physical changes like muscle growth and mental changes like confidence and aggression, though there is robust debate over the extent to which those effects should be understood as masculine, to what extent theyre shaped by existing social context, and whether these therapies show effects at a population level.

In any case, men are seeking these mental and physical changes, and Dr. Cameron Sepah, a professor of psychiatry at the school of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, has noticed the uptick in popularity. Hes a clinician first, but has something of a vested interest as CEO of Maximus, which offers personalized treatment plans (a monthly membership is $149.99) to help men double their testosterone levels. Maximus men, Sepah claims, report having more energy, motivation, drive, and confidence.

They dont have the need for that afternoon nap anymore when they get sluggish toward the end of the day, he says.

Chris Jones, who joined Maximus about a year ago, is 39 and works as an attorney in Los Angeles. When the pandemic hit, Jones became interested in assessing his overall health. While he says he never felt particularly tired or off-balance, he also had never taken a testosterone test, and was surprised to see that his total level was 260 ng/dL.

Since popping the enclomiphene, Jones says his level has jumped to 730. I definitely feel more energy, more calm, more focus, he says. Just overall stronger and better. The naps and extra cups of coffee he occasionally needed in the afternoons have tapered off. And his verticalJones works with a dunk trainerhas gone up eight inches.

While testosterone therapy provides benefits, some doctors will caution against turning to testosterone replacement right away if youre feeling fatigued or less potent in the bedroom.

Theres all these lifestyle factors that will cause low testosterone or sort of simulate low-testosterone symptoms, says Dr. Kenneth Litwin, a physician who works with Fitzgerald at the Sandy Hook Clinic in Connecticut. If you help the person to identify that and help them work on all those things, they may never need testosterone.

Thats because testosterone levels can be affected by many factors. Getting eight hours of sleep or correcting a nutritional deficiency, like a low level of vitamin D, will restore your testosterone to its natural baseline. Strength training, looking for ways to decrease stress, and cutting out smoking are also key.

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone

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At the recent US Supreme Court confirmation hearings for Ketanji Brown Jackson, Sen. Marsha Blackburn triggered controversy when she asked Jackson to define the word woman. After Jackson declined, several Republican congresspeople chimed in with definitions for woman that ranged from dubious to shocking, including the weaker sex, someone who has a uterus, and X chromosomes, no tallywhacker.

Such notions havent evolved much since 1871, when naturalist Charles Darwin told the world that man is more courageous, pugnacious, and energetic than women, and has more inventive genius. Most 19th- and 20th-century evolutionary theories (and theorists) asserted that evolution created two kinds of creatures male and female and individuals behavior and nature reflected this biological binary.

Today a chorus of scientific-sounding claims about blue and pink brains, testosterone and male primate aggression are offered up as natural explanations for masculine and feminine behavior, along with gaps in pay, jobs, political and economic leadership, and sexuality. In the political and legal realms, the belief that biology creates two types of humans is invoked in a range of attempts to mandate and enforce how humans should behave.

These assertions and beliefs are wrong. In addition, the commitment to a simple binary view creates a fictitious template for a battle of the sexes that manifests in miseducation about basic biology, the denigration of womens rights, the justifications of incel and mens rights violence, and the creation of anti-transgender laws.

Science points to a more accurate and hopeful way to understand the biology of sex. By recognizing the true diversity of the human experience, humanity can embrace an expansive and multifaceted way of envisioning and experiencing human nature. This evidence-based outlook is not only far more interesting than the simplistic and incorrect tallywhacker versus no tallywhacker perspective, but also more conducive to respect and flourishing.

Starting at the most basic level of animal biology, there are multitudes of ways to be female or male or both. The oceans are filled with species of fish that change from one sex to another midlife, and some who change back again. There are invertebrate hermaphrodites and ladies-only lizards who reproduce by recombining their own chromosomes. In some mammals, females are brimming with testosterone and have large penises. In various fish and mammals, males do all the caretaking of infants. And in a variety of species, females are authoritarian, promiscuous and yes, Darwin pugnacious.

Of course, there are patterned differences between females and males in many species. But there is far more diversity, complexity and collaboration than most people realise. When one looks closer at the biology of sex in animals, including humans, it is clear that Darwin, biologist E.O. Wilson, geneticist Angus Bateman, and various Republican politicians are minimally way off base and mostly flat out wrong.

Man/woman and masculine/feminine are neither biological terms nor rooted exclusively in biology. Sex, biologically, is not simply defined or uniformly enacted. In humans, having two X chromosomes or an X and a Y chromosome does not create binary bodies, destinies, or lives. If we could crawl into the womb with a fetus at about six to eight weeks of age, wed see a few clusters of cells in the emerging body get nudges by DNA activity and start to generate new organs, including the clitoris and penis, labia and scrotum, ovaries and testes. All genitals are made from the exact same stuff. Since they have a few differing end functions, their final form is different. But there is a lot of overlap.

In fact, of the 140 million babies born last year, at least 280,000 did not fit into a clear penis versus labia model of sex determination. Genitals, hormone levels, and chromosomes are not reliable determinants of sex. There are, for example, people with XY chromosomes who have female characteristics, people with ambiguous genitalia, and women with testosterone levels outside the typical female range.

Biologically, there is no simple dichotomy between female and male. As I demonstrate in my book Race, Monogamy, and Other Lies They Told You, brains are no more sexed at birth than are kidneys and livers. Rather, brains are mosaics of characteristically female and male features.

Of course, there are clear bodily differences in capacities to give birth and lactate, and ranges of patterns in the development and distribution of body size, strength, and myriad other processes. But such patterns are mostly overlapping, and only a few are distributed in clear or functional dichotomies. Numerous studies have found that the differences between adult men and women are overhyped and largely influenced by the dynamics of biology and culture. Humans are naturenurtural a fusion of nature and nurture.

For example, many explanations for differences between males and females rest on assumptions about the disparate evolved costs of reproduction between them. But human reproduction is more complex than two individuals having sex, then the female giving birth and taking care of the offspring. While today it is common in many societies for women to raise children on their own or with a male (who often does not contribute equally to child-rearing), this setup developed very recently in human history.

There is massive evidence that the genus Homo (humans) evolved complex cooperative caretaking more than a million years ago, changing the patterns and pressures of our evolution. Such alloparenting practices are still widespread among many human groups, in which mothers and fathers, grandparents, other female and male relatives, and boys and girls in the community all help feed, teach and care for children. This complex overlap in social and reproductive roles is exciting and hopeful. When it comes to raising kids, humans dont come in two kinds. Rather, we evolved to be a collaborative and creative community.

The data-driven bottom line is that man/woman and masculine/feminine are neither biological terms nor rooted exclusively in biology. The lack of an explicit binary is especially evident in humans given the complex neurobiologies, life histories and morphological dynamics in our species. There are many successful, biologically diverse ways to be human, and millions of people embody this diversity. Growing up human means growing up in a world of varying gender expectations, body types, reproductive options, family structures, and sexual orientations.

So, instead of listening to people who are misogynistic, sexist, or homo/transphobic; incels; or politicians who base their ideologies on a biological sex binary and myths about its evolution, we can and should be open to a serious understanding of biology and its better options for human flourishing. The simple male/female binary does not effectively express the normal range of being human. Understanding this and incorporating it into our education, lives, and laws offers better possibilities, greater equity and more joy for human society.

This article was first published by SAPIENS.

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone

NEW ORLEANS, May 14, 2022 /PRNewswire/ --Does environmental exposure impact men's fertility? How does testosterone impact bone density loss and personal budgets? Can a lower dose of urinary medication decrease the risk of a major cardiac event?

Researchers will be presenting these men's health study findings at the 117th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Urological Association. R. Charles Welliver, Jr., MD, associate professor of surgery in the Department of Urology at Albany Medical College, will moderate a press session featuring the following four abstracts at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center in New Orleans on May 14, 2022, at 10 a.m. CT.

Federico Belladelli, MD, from the San Raffaele Hospital, investigated the association between air pollutants and semen levels in men seeking medical treatments for infertility. "Does Air Pollution Impact on Semen Parameters: Findings From a Real-Life Cross-Sectional Study in White-European Infertile Men"

Ruben Blachman-Braun, MD, of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, evaluated if men receiving phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for lower urinary tract symptoms have a decreased risk of major adverse cardiac events or venous thromboembolism. "Is Tadalafil Associated with Decreased Risk of Major Adverse Cardiac Events or Venous Thromboembolism in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms?"

The cost of undergoing treatment with testosterone therapy via direct-to-consumer platforms was compared to the cost for similar care at a tertiary center by Nicholas Sellke, MD, of Case Western Reserve University. "Cost Analysis of Direct-to-Consumer Telehealth Platforms Offering Testosterone Therapy"

Factors such as age, diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea were researched by Jose Flores, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, as significant predictors of bone density loss. "Analyzing the Impact of Testosterone on Bone Density Loss"

"The AUA and the Annual Meeting continue an important focus on topics in men's health," said Dr. Welliver. "The research emphasized here encompasses the breadth of men's health with important topics like medication safety, fertility effects of environmental exposures and the effects of testosterone both on bone health and on men's wallets.The AUA is an important champion for issues regarding men's health and these presentations highlight some of the best work at our meeting."

About the American Urological Association: The 117th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association takes place May 13-16 at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center in New Orleans. Founded in 1902 and headquartered nearBaltimore, Maryland, the American Urological Association is a leading advocate for the specialty of urology and has nearly 24,000 members throughout the world. The AUA is a premier urologic association, providing invaluable support to the urologic community as it pursues its mission of fostering the highest standards of urologic care through education, research and the formulation of health policy.

Media Contact: Caitlin Lukacs, Corporate Communications and Media Relations Manager 410-689-4081,

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Urologists Examine Role of Pollutants, Medications and Testosterone on Men's Health - Benzinga - Benzinga

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone

WASHINGTON, May 18, 2022 /PRNewswire/ --A pioneering study published today in AACC's The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine has established transgender reference intervals for common clinical laboratory tests. Reference intervals are essential to high quality medical testing and by determining them for transgender individuals, this research could lead to significant improvements in healthcare for this vulnerable patient population.

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At least 80% of transgender people have either taken gender-affirming hormone therapy or want to take it at some point so that they can express their gender in a way that makes them feel comfortable. One side effect of this hormone therapy is that it changes results for common laboratory tests. As a result, there is a critical need for accurate transgender-specific reference intervals, which are the ranges of lab values observed in a healthy population that are used to determine whether individual lab results are normal or concerning. Without accurate reference intervals, clinicians could misinterpret transgender patient test results, which in turn could lead to misdiagnosis and/or inappropriate treatment. To date, a number of studies have looked at the impact of gender-affirming hormone therapy on lab test results. However, most of these studies have included people with medical conditions, which means that their findings can't be used to determine reference intervals for the transgender population.

A team of researchers led by Matthew Krasowski, MD, PhD, of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, set out to fill this gap in transgender care. To do this, Krasowski's team recruited 175 healthy transgender and nonbinary adults, 93 of whom had been prescribed estradiol (a form of estrogen) and 82 of whom had been prescribed testosterone for at least 12 months. In these study participants, the researchers measured electrolytes, creatinine, urea nitrogen, liver function enzymes, hemoglobin A1c, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clinicians routinely test for these analytes to diagnose a broad range of common conditions ranging from diabetes to liver damage to cardiovascular disease.

From this, the researchers found that liver function enzymes exhibited the most significant shift toward affirmed gender. This means that transmasculine individuals taking testosterone had enzymes in the same range as healthy cisgender men, while transfeminine individuals taking estradiol had enzymes in the same range as healthy cisgender women. In participants taking testosterone, creatinine also shifted toward affirmed gender and HDL cholesterol decreased, though changes to these analytes did not occur in the estradiol group. As for the remaining analytes, gender-affirming hormone therapy had minimal impact on them. Using these results, the researchers calculated transgender-specific reference intervals for each of these tests according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

"Gender-affirming hormone therapy with either estradiol or testosterone is the standard of care for the medical transition of transgender and nonbinary people," said Krasowski. "Here, we established reference intervals for common clinical chemistry analytes in transgender people administered either feminizing or masculinizing hormone therapy. These results help promote evidence-based medical care for the transgender and nonbinary population."

About AACCDedicated to achieving better health through laboratory medicine, AACC brings together more than 70,000 clinical laboratory professionals, physicians, research scientists, and business leaders from around the world focused on clinical chemistry, molecular diagnostics, mass spectrometry, translational medicine, lab management, and other areas of progressing laboratory science. Since 1948, AACC has worked to advance the common interests of the field, providing programs that advance scientific collaboration, knowledge, expertise, and innovation. For more information, visit

Launched by AACC in 2016,The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine( is an international, peer-reviewed publication showcasing the applied research in clinical laboratory science that is driving innovation forward in healthcare.

Christine DeLongAACCSenior Manager, Communications & PR(p) 202.835.8722[emailprotected]

Molly PolenAACCSenior Director, Communications & PR(p) 202.420.7612(c) 703.598.0472[emailprotected]


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Breaking Research That Could Greatly Improve Transgender Healthcare Published in AACC's The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine - PR Newswire

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May 21st, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone

The rising cases of male gonads dysfunction and the rising number of health problems among males resulted in a reduction of testosterone secretion. This further augmented the growth of the globaltestosterone replacement therapy market. Testosterone deficiency is considered a common health problem among men within the age group 40 to 70.

In terms of product, the market is dominated by the testosterone injections segment on account of the rising prevalence of medical conditions such as metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity issues. Additionally, the availability of programs such as patient assistance is also helping augment the need for testosterone injections among other products.

According to a report by Transparency Market Research, the global testosterone replacement therapy market is projected to rise at a CAGR of 4.4% and reach a value of USD 2,296.2 million by the end of 2027 from a value of USD 1613.7 million earned in 2018.

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Rising Cases of type-2 Diabetes is projected to Add Boost to Overall Growth of Market

Skin testosterone is a medication that is applied to the skin to treat hypogonadism, a condition that keeps the body from making sufficient testosterone. A portion of the topically applied testosterone drug structures are creams, gels, and fixes. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) or androgen substitution treatment is perhaps the main class of chemical substitution treatment received universally. It involves the substitution of testosterone chemicals, particularly in male patients, when they experience the ill effects of hypogonadism, lower testosterone levels, and additionally low moxie. Testosterone is the essential male chemical liable for the improvement of male sexual qualities, spermatogenesis, and fruitfulness. Deficient creation of testosterone causes erectile brokenness. Erectile brokenness happens because of diminished testosterone creation to defeat this testosterone replacement therapy is utilized to work on the issue.

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Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is moderately new when contrasted with other drug treatments for end clients internationally. Notwithstanding, it is acquiring acknowledgment among patients and doctors because of expanding mindfulness concerning the advantages and viability of testosterone replacement therapy items. Additionally, the increasing number of geriatric population, coupled with the rising prevalence of hypogonadism among patients having type-2- diabetes are further expected to aid in the expansion of the global market for testosterone replacement therapy in the forecast duration. Furthermore, the increasing awareness about testosterone substitute therapy is also projected to add a boost to the overall growth of this market.

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Region-wise, the market is dominated by North America with the U.S. generating the largest revenue. The dominance of this region is attributed to the presence of better healthcare facilities and infrastructure. Additionally, the presence of a well-aware public and supportive government initiative in the form of reimbursement policies and medical insurances will also add a boost to the overall growth of the regional market in the coming years. On the other side, the market in Europe and the Asia Pacific will also witness notable growth on account of the rising investments in improving healthcare infrastructure and facilities and the advent of better therapeutic devices.

A few drug fabricating organizations have presented a wide scope of TRT drugs in the worldwide market. Key TRT drugs are accessible in six diverse item frames: gels or creams, infusions, inserts, patches, buccal glues, and orals. Key fixings used in various item frames incorporate testosterone, methyltestosterone, and testosterone esters, for example, testosterone undecanoate, testosterone enanthate, and testosterone cypionate. Advertising efforts by driving parts in the business for their marked items would help in expanding mindfulness about testosterone therapy among people. This expanded mindfulness is expected to support interest in testosterone replacement therapy items, which thus is probably going to drive the market.

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The information presented in this report is obtained from Transparency Market Research titled, Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market (Product Creams/Gels, Patches, Injections, Gums/Buccal Adhesives, Implants; Active Ingredient Testosterone, Methyl Testosterone, Testosterone Undecanoate, Testosterone Enanthate, Testosterone Cypionate) Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2019 2027.

Some of the prominent players of the global testosterone replacement therapy market include Ferring Holding SA, Pfizer Inc., Mylan N.V., Eli Lily Company, Bayer AG, AbbVie Inc., Clarus Therapeutics, Novartis AG, Kyowa Kirin International Plc., Endo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Allergan Plc., and others.

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Estimated to Rise Profitably during the Foreseeable Future - Digital Journal

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May 9th, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone

Testosterone boosters are a hot topic these days because of their effectiveness in improving testosterone levels in the body. This is also for the reason that the production of testosterone hormones in the body starts to slow down as people reach the age of 30. And also, T boosters come with ingredients, substances, and vitamins that are beneficial for the body overall. One popular T booster thats making a name in the industry is Sculpt Nation Test. For this article, well provide you with all the things which you require to know about this product and why it is a good investment among other T booster choices in the market.

Sculpt Nation Test is a form of natural T booster that is known not only to promote faster testosterone production but also to improve bodily functions the same like Prime Male T Booster did. Among the things, it can do include improving sexual drive and activity, improving muscle mass and build-up, regulating the flow of blood, and stimulating healing of the body.

Many functions of the body are connected to testosterone levels. Sculpt Nation Test revolves around the concept that improving the production of testosterone in the body improves bodily functions thus promoting better overall health.

One thing which Sculpt Nation Test boasts about is the list of unique ingredients which are not found on many T boosters today. furthermore, these ingredients have high potency and effectiveness in delivering many positive results to health. Among the popular ingredients of Sculpt Nation Test include the following:

Among the unique ingredients which Sculpt Nation Test is proud of is Tribulus Terrestris. This ingredient comes from rare plants located in dry places such as Eurasia and Africa. Some of its known effects on the body when ingested include improved muscle development, improves libido, and regulates blood flow.

When it comes to health booster ingredients, youll always hear the ingredient Ginseng on the list. Ginseng is well known for years because of its potent effect in improving ones health. For this particular T booster, it uses the American Panax Ginseng which is native to the US and is known for its T boosting effects. In addition, it also has other beneficial effects such as reducing high blood pressure, relieving stress, anxiety, and even relaxing moods.

Many fruits and food plant-based food are rich in nutrients and vitamins to help in the production of testosterone in the body. Among the popular fruits for this purpose are berries particularly Hawthorn Berry. The extract from this fruit stimulates the production of testosterone hormones even in small amounts.

Among the advantages of Sculpt Nation Test Boost over its competition is that it makes use of natural ingredients without any artificial or chemical ingredients. Its all-natural ingredient greatly improves the credibility of the product especially to those who are sensitive to certain substances and chemicals. Furthermore, natural ingredients actually have proven effects namely to improve testosterone production.

Another benefit of choosing Sculpt Nation Test Boost over other T boosters in the market is for the reason that it delivers many added health benefits instead of just boosting T levels. It also provides health benefits which include heightened muscle and bone development, improved healing of the body, faster nutrient absorption, and even slows down the absorption of fat or calories which contributes to weight gain or obesity.

Lastly, Sculpt Nation Test Boost is reasonably priced despite its impressive list of unique ingredients and benefits. Check Our Test Boost review at Jpost for full advantages.

Probably the only thing that should be considered about Sculpt Nation Test Boost would be that the ingredients actually have lesser concentration or amount compared with others. The good thing however is that its list of other ingredients makes up for the few amounts of the other. Sculpt Nation Test Boost presents a list of ingredients which are all packed with essential nutrients and vitamins that stimulate testosterone levels.

Aside from taking Sculpt Nation Test Boost pills every day, how else can you improve T levels? Here are a few habits which you can do for better results.

Among the things that the body needs in order to build muscles and also to boost T levels are to exercise and to work out. As you work out or exercise, you tear muscle tissues. The body has an automatic reaction to healing these tissues which results in bigger muscles as it heals. Testosterone contributes to the healing and development of muscles. Through increased exercise activities, bodily functions continue to activate and more testosterone hormones are being produced.

One thing that people misunderstand about sleep is that it is useless and doesnt have any benefit. As the body wears out from stress, work, exercise, and other activities, it loses energy and vigor. Sleeping allows the body to recover its strength and its energy. Furthermore, the healing of tissues in the body does not happen when it is active it happens when the body is at rest. So, to make sure that your body is healing effectively, have a good amount of sleep. Have at least 7 to 8 hours of sleep to recover fully.

Now taking Sculpt Nation Test Boost pills every day will not be sufficient to help you achieve the right T level that you want. As mentioned earlier, the ingredients of any T booster pills are less concentrated which means there may not be sufficient vitamins and nutrients in one pill. So, make sure to compensate with the right diet. Choose food choices that are natural and avoid artificial or junk foods as this can bring about the fat build-up to the body or obesity.

Lastly, have a regular visit to your doctor to monitor results. This is especially vital for people with certain allergies or ailments. A doctor will be able to determine if what you are doing is right in the area of improving your T levels and if you need to stay away from specific ingredients or food selections.

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May 9th, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone

Albany NY, United States: Carbohydrase Market - An Overview

The global carbohydrase market is expected to witness strong growth during the forecast period between 2021 and 2031.

Carbohydrase is a category of enzymes that help in decomposing carbohydrates into simpler sugars. Carbohydrase has proven beneficial in improving digestion in human beings.

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In some cases, carbohydrase has also proven useful to reduce diabetes. A few types of carbohydrase include amylase, cellulase, lactase, and pectinase.

The COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected the global carbohydrase market. With governments imposing lockdowns and strict social distancing regulations, manufacturing facilities in the food and beverages industry were forced to shut down temporarily or permanently.

This resulted in a decrease in demand for carbohydrase and negatively impacted the overall market.

The market, however, is projected to witness steady growth in the post-pandemic phase, owing to re-opening of manufacturing facilities leading to improved product demand.

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Carbohydrase Market - Trends and Opportunities

Rising demand for sports drinks among different population sections globally is the key growth driver for the carbohydrase market.

Also, growth in the field of enzyme engineering, which has proven beneficial in the development of the product chemically is expected to fuel the growth in the carbohydrase market, in future.

Constant growth in the pharmaceutical and medical industries is also anticipated to drive the carbohydrase demand, globally, in the coming years.

Government initiatives and measures, promoting the benefits of carbohydrase in food and beverages products could help fuel product demand in the years ahead.

The beverages product segment is expected to make the largest contribution to the overall market in future as carbohydrase has emerged as the main ingredient in the manufacturing of sports drinks, in the last few years.

Carbohydrase derived from microbes is anticipated to contribute the most to the overall market worldwide since these products comprise a large number of enzyme catalysts.

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Carbohydrase Market - Competitive Landscape

The global carbohydrase market is extremely competitive, with the presence of several well-established players. Many of these players are expected to account for a large share in the overall market, in the years ahead.

Growth strategies such as novel product launches could help leading players gain a competitive edge over others in the global carbohydrase market, in the coming years.

Dyadic produced an enzyme recently named endoglucanases which is expected to witness high demand in the upcoming years.

Collaborations with lesser-known players could help prominent market players expand their market presence and increase their revenue share

R&D undertakings could be a key growth strategy for the well-established players, in future.

Some of the leading players in the global carbohydrase market include Novozymes, AB Enzymes GmbH, Royal DSM, Amano EnzymesInc., and Specialty Enzymes.

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Carbohydrase Market - Regional Assessment

The global carbohydrase market is classified into five regions, namely, North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and Latin America.

North America is anticipated to be the dominant region in the global carbohydrase market due to the presence of a large number of food and beverages companies in countries such as US and Canada.

Europe is expected to offer lucrative growth opportunities for the overall market in future owing to increasing government initiatives in countries such as Italy and Germany, contributing to market growth in the region.

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Asia Pacific is anticipated to provide profitable growth opportunities for the carbohydrase market due to the growth in the animal-feed industry in countries such as India and Thailand.

Leading market players could establish R&D facilities in countries such as India owing to ease of availability of key resources such as land and labor.

Other regions of the world such as Middle East and Africa and Latin America are expected to witness moderate growth in the carbohydrase market, in the coming years.

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Testosterone deficiency is one of the common health problems among men aged between 40 years and 79 years. The incidence of low testosterone levels in men aged over 60 years is estimated to be around 20% of the male population, and in population aged over 70 years, around 30%. The global prevalence of testosterone deficiency ranges from over 10% to 40% of the population.

Pharmaceutical Excipients Market The concept of bioequivalence development is being highly publicized in the pharmaceutical excipients market. Hence, manufacturers are addressing the challenges of solubility and bioavailability of excipients in order to improve manufacturing efficiency. The growing bioequivalence sector is flourishing with high prevalence of chronic diseases and increased access to medication, especially through online sales and e-Commerce platforms.

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Our reports are single-point solutions for businesses to grow, evolve, and mature. Our real-time data collection methods along with ability to track more than one million high growth niche products are aligned with your aims. The detailed and proprietary statistical models used by our analysts offer insights for making right decision in the shortest span of time. For organizations that require specific but comprehensive information we offer customized solutions through ad hoc reports. These requests are delivered with the perfect combination of right sense of fact-oriented problem solving methodologies and leveraging existing data repositories.

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Carbohydrase Market: Rising demand for sports drinks among different population sections globally to drive the market - BioSpace

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May 9th, 2022 | Filed under Testosterone
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