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National Funds Swelling: Thoroughly Examine Whether Spending Is … – The Japan News

Nov 27th, 2023
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16:33 JST,November 26, 2023

National funds, through which the government secures money for projects over multiple fiscal years, have continued to swell in size. These funds are financed by taxpayers money, so it is essential to thoroughly examine whether they are being used effectively.

Prime Minister Fumio Kishida has instructed relevant officials to comprehensively review the national funds. This move came after a large amount of money was earmarked for the funds, mainly through supplementary budgets, but much of it was not used, leaving the balances to accumulate. Money that is not expected to be used should be returned to state coffers as soon as possible.

National funds are pooled from government finances and take such forms as subsidies and loans. In principle, national budgets must be presented to the Diet each fiscal year for approval of how the money in them will be used, but national funds are not subject to Diet approval.

This is intended to counter the adverse effects of the so-called single fiscal year approach to budgets, whereby government bodies try to use up their entire budget within a fiscal year. However, because a Diet vote is not required for specific expenditures of national funds, it is difficult to monitor them.

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, spending for these funds was about 1 trillion a year. Due to the pandemic, however, the figure ballooned as a result of various measures, such as one to financially support small and midsize companies, and 29 trillion was allocated for the funds from fiscal 2020 to fiscal 2023.

As of the end of March this year, the total balance of these funds had reached 16.6 trillion.

Another problem is that in many cases, the funds have been handled without establishing such specifics as a clear time frame for their operation or a target period for achieving goals, even though massive amounts of taxpayer money have been poured into the funds.

According to national rules, the fiscal year in which the operation of a national fund will end must be specified, with the period not exceeding 10 years, in principle. However, of 186 government projects conducted by 13 ministries and agencies, the fiscal year for the end of operation remains undecided for 65 projects.

For example, 206 billion was set aside for a fund to promote innovation by small and midsize companies, which is intended to support research and development by such companies, in a supplementary budget for fiscal 2022. However, the ending fiscal year was not given and a target for achieving goals was also unclear.

An ending year also has not been determined for a fund to support agricultural production areas that is intended to encourage farmers to introduce agricultural machinery and other equipment.

In many cases, even the specific goals to be achieved with the national funds have reportedly not been set.

These funds incur management costs, such as personnel expenses, simply to maintain them. The operation period and goals must be specified, and funds that are not sufficiently effective or necessary should be abolished as soon as possible.

The funds were expanded partly to prepare for unforeseen circumstances amid the pandemic, but this practice should not be allowed to continue in a haphazard manner.

A supplementary budget for fiscal 2023 that has been submitted to the Diet includes a total of 4.3 trillion for national funds, including additional financing for existing funds. Whether such spending is appropriate needs to be discussed fully.

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 26, 2023)

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National Funds Swelling: Thoroughly Examine Whether Spending Is ... - The Japan News



Compare the Top 8 Best NMN Supplements for Anti-Aging Support – Renton Reporter

Nov 27th, 2023
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Wonderfeel NMN is a helpful way to improve the human body. It uses a patented version of NMN, increasing NAD levels and changing the adjustments that consumers go through with age. Users get 900mg of NMN in every serving, which is two capsules. It stands as one of the strongest doses in this guide, and it even exceeds the amount that clinical trials use.

Developed by Dr. Andrew Salzman, this remedy has the support of a Harvard-trained medical doctor and biomedical scientists. He personally is the holder of 50+ patients during these 30 years of research. It helps consumers to improve their focus and clarity while improving athletic performance and youthful energy. The total cost of this formula is $88.

When NAD levels improve, consumers might see a boost of up to 51%. It helps consumers with anti-aging benefits, and it is backed by the support of two Nobel Prize winners. However, the reason that Tru Niagen stands out against other products is because it offers nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is also a precursor to NMN. It helps consumers to improve their aging, brain health, heart health, and more. It is available for $47.

This formula uses science-backed ingredients to support these effects as well. Some of those ingredients include ashwagandha, multivitamins, brain health supplements, digestive health aids, and more. For one bottle, the total cost is $69.

With all of these ingredients, the ingredients all boost anti-aging benefits, giving users an additional boost for their cognition. It also comes from a company that is known for their premium supplements, and it costs $77.

While the powder makes it more effective, it doesnt get a spot closer to the top of the list because of the FDA. In 2020, a warning letter was issued by the FDA to this company in Florida because of claims that it could be used as a potential remedy for the COVID-19 virus. While Alive By Nature proceeds with the changes needed, these formulas are still rather difficult to come by, despite a $59 price tag.

Liftmode NMN is available as a powder as well, just like Sublingual NMN by Alive By Nature. It costs $26.68 for 5 grams, and it offers an incredibly strong dose of NMN. It offers incredible anti-aging benefits, helping users to get the best results by using micro-batch production and vacuum sealing of the remedy. All of these products come with the support of an independent third party.

Consumers can choose from two other sizes for these formulas, depending on what the user wants to have on hand.

Elysium has a whole lineup of high-quality ingredients that allows consumers to find exactly what they need. The company has already established partnerships with Oxford and Yale, giving them incredible access to new research. The work that the company has already done earned them NSF Certified for Sport certification, showing their purity and quality. This close relationship also allows the brand to invest in clinical trials, putting their own products through 13 separate studies.

With many different anti-aging formulas, consumers can order the following products from Elysium:

Consumers get 250mg of NR in every two capsules of the NMN supplements. It helps users to improve their NAD. It also uses pterostilbene to improve the effects. The total cost is $69.

To add these products to the list of the top NMN supplements for the year, certain criteria had to be met. Heres a look at the different questions that the guide asked while compiling the list.

With all of these factors considered, this guide included other considerations that could help consumers to make a choice. The manufacturer played a big role in the supplements ability to improve the users results, which is why trusted companies were the priority. These companies had to be consistent, high-quality, and show a consistent track record of positive performance.

Finding products that have the support or advice of doctors on staff was also a major advantage. Some of the products here were even made by actual doctors, which gives added validity that isnt found anywhere else. Some of the other brands showed the contributions that theyd received from medical researchers and other medical professionals.

NMN is used to help consumers to improve their bodys natural production of NAD+. Current research on NAD+ shows that consumers can get anti-aging benefits from this ingredient, which is why many people supplement it.

Unfortunately, these same studies show that consumers cant just take NAD+ to get the benefits, but thats where NMN comes in. Most of the NAD in the body comes from vitamin B3, helping users to naturally boost NAD. Using NMN is backed by substantial scientific research.

When consumers get NAD+ at the right level, they can potentially increase their lifespan and experience incredible cognitive and physical effects. It has been carefully studied by researchers for its effects, but most people dont keep producing enough NAD with age. By supplementing after age 40, it can drastically improve NAD production.

NAD+ is usually highly abundant when it is produced at the right level, but NAD tends to be unstable. Using a precursor is the best way to improve it, which is where NMN comes in.

There are many different reasons that consumers might choose to use NMN. Some people enjoy the support it offers when they want to look and feel younger. Others want to improve their metabolism, promote weight loss, or improve their health.

According to the current research on NMN, using this ingredient can help with:

Many benefits continue to be unveiled with current clinical research.

When it comes to any new supplement, consistently using it is the key to success, but there are many people that NMN simply doesnt suit. Unfortunately, consumers sometimes are disappointed to find that this remedy isnt the right solution for their needs. Some people claim that it isnt truly effective at all, while others focus on blaming the supplement brand responsible for it.

The main reason that consumers dont experience the changes that NMN aims to bring is if they arent a legitimate product. Far too many products offer a blend of B vitamins and herbs to make it seem as though the remedy is working. In reality, theres not a lot of NMN working at all.

If the supplement is legitimate, the problem might be that it isnt absorbing properly. NMN is hard to absorb because the digestive system breaks it down substantially. To avoid this issue, some companies include fatty molecules to make them more sustainable.

If the product is authentic, and consumers absorb everything that they should, the company might have the dosage wrong. They might even have purity wrong, which means that consumers arent getting everything that they could from these types of supplements. Using one of the top-ranked supplements on this list is the key to that success.

According to the current research on NMN supplements, using this remedy is meant to help consumers improve the appearance and effects of aging. This research proves that supplementation with NMN helps with heart health, brain health, and other areas of good health. Lets discuss some of the ways that NMN is scientifically proven to help.

The main reason that a lot of people initially start using NMN supplements is because they want more energy. This ingredient helps consumers to improve their physical and cognitive energy because it boost cellular energy, supporting the mitochondria with a powerful effect. According to a study in 2016, researchers determined that age directly influences mitochondrial dysfunction. The body simply isnt able to function without the same NMN as when they were younger.

When the mitochondria gets a boost in energy from these supplements, many people report improved endurance and better physical performance. In a study in 2017, researchers found that using NMN helps to trigger the production of NAD, helping them to reduce physical damage and promote physical performance.

There is no greater killer than heart disease, which is part of the reason that so many people appreciate what NMN can do. A study in 2016 showed that supplementing with NMN helps users to improve their cardiovascular function with better blood flow. It reduces inflammation, and it helps users to improve their overall health.

When consumers use NMN, they improve immune function, making it easier to fight against disease and sickness. In a study in 2022, researchers discovered that using NMN helps with the reprogramming of macrophages, which makes it possible for the immune system to work more effectively. Like other studies, consumers will find that the reduced inflammation is a significant benefit.

Using NMN helps consumers to feel and look younger than theyve ever been. It promotes better brain health with improved cellular activity. A study in 2014 confirmed that consumers improved the survival rate of cells, especially in the brain. It improved how well brain cells endure to reduce the risk of degenerative brain conditions.

Another study in 2019 showed researchers that it could help with brain health in other ways as well, helping them to perform just as well as younger mice during cognitive tests.

Metabolism doesnt function at the same rate as the body gets older. With the revival of cellular energy, NMN is considered to be helpful to consumers who want to promote weight loss. When metabolism is faster, consumers improve how effectively they burn through calories. In a 2016 study, researchers found that older mice increased their metabolism, matching the rate that younger mice experience.

DNA repair is another big reason for using NMN. While this benefit may seem a little vague, supporting DNA repair means that consumers improve their overall health and wellness. When the body doesnt have enough NAD, repairing DNA on its own is difficult. Using an NMN supplement is the easiest way to support DNA repair.

In some studies, using an NMN supplement has been associated with better vision. When consumers have their support, they can reduce the risk of photoreceptor degeneration, which means that consumers can improve their vision quickly. It is sometimes helpful for individuals who deal with dry eye syndrome.

When consumers experience a lot of inflammation, they increase their risk of disease and illness. As the root cause of many health issues, NMN is used daily as a way to protect users against inflammation. It also reduces free radicals that could otherwise trigger inflammation.

In a 2020 study, researchers stated that using NMN supplements helped with insulin secretion. It also helps the body to properly process insulin, making it more effective when bringing down blood sugar levels.

Someone who doesnt have adequate levels of NAD also struggles to maintain their musculoskeletal structure. When adults get older and improve NAD levels like they used to have, they can improve NAD levels with exercise and diet.

While NMN supplements are fairly popular, theyve been around for over a decade already. Using it daily for anti-aging benefits is one of the most common reasons that consumers have it. Unfortunately, the incredible effects might be too much for some people.

In November 2022, the Food and Drug Administration decided to ban beta-nicotinamide mononucleotide (B-NMN) from being available in supplements. This ingredient presently is being researched to use as a new medication, so it is ineligible as a dietary supplement. Despite being sold safely for years, consumers will have to adjust what they need to do to procure these supplements legally.

Before the FDA imposed this law, NMN was classified as a new dietary ingredient, which is why supplements sold it so willingly. This ruling was revoked in October 2022, which means that consumers could not get it in the United States. Companies are consistently pushing past this ruling, pushing for the government to understand the safety of NMN supplements.

NAD stands for Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, but it also goes by NAD+. Produced in the body in all cells, it is important to repair DNA and restore energy levels. It reduces inflammation, supports cellular signaling, and improves other areas of health.

Most people like NAD and NMN supplements because they want to reap the anti-aging benefits, allowing users to remain cognitively sharp and physically ready for whatevers next. They work at all ages, especially for anyone who wants to reduce inflammation and improve their heart health.

The aging process forces NAD levels to drop drastically, making it harder for consumers to stay focused and be physically active.

These supplements help the body to naturally produce more NAD. It offers a dose of nicotinamide mononucleotide, working quickly to increase how fast the body creates it again.

According to current research, most people can safely use NMN supplements. There are no adverse effects associated with it, even if the user takes more of it than they are supposed to. If there are any concerns, consumers should consider speaking to their doctor first to ensure that this remedy is safe for use with medication or some medical conditions.

NAD is produced by the human body already, though it could be used in its natural state for supplementation. Unfortunately, it isnt stable, and its lack of popularity means that consumers might not find it easily. Instead, many companies use NMN to naturally increase NAD levels of the body.

In November 2022, the Food and Drug Administration decided that the research on NMN as a pharmaceutical drug means that it cannot be sold as a supplement. NMN supplements come with restrictions when sold online by some retailers, while others make it easy. The legal issues surrounding NMN supplements are constantly changing, so consumers will need to check their local laws when they place their order.

Chicken, tuna, turkey, and edamame all help consumers to increase the amount of NAD in their body.

When consumers take NMN, consumers feel more youthful and healthier. It helps them improve cognition and physical activity. Some people use it for specific goals if other ingredients are involved?

In clinical studies on the effects of NMN, many consumers find that using 250mg is enough to give them the right support. Some people take up to 1000mg in these studies, which is completely safe.

Dr. Sinclair is a professor at Harvard University, leading the way in NMN and NAD research. It also is part of several research groups who seek to understand the anti-aging effects that NAD and NMN bring.

Using an NMN or NR supplement is one of the easiest ways to improve NAD production. Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine is a helpful way to improve NAD levels. It is possible that the right lifestyle habits are enough to maintain NAD levels for older and younger adults alike.

Participating in rapid bursts of exercise with incredible intensity like HIIT can naturally improve NAD levels.

Based on the data compiled in this guide, the top NMN supplement comes from Genuine Purity Liposomal NMN+. Other helpful options include Wonderfeel NMN, Tru Niagen, Elysium NMN, and Life Extension NAD+ Cell Regenerator.

The majority of the supplements with NMN today require a lot of money to manufacture, and companies have to adjust accordingly. For NMN with high purity, more work is needed to make them available, and the high popularity of this type of product ensures that consumers consistently want to buy it.

These supplements are available within capsules. Most remedies only require a capsule a day to get the desired effects. Some companies offer it as a powder instead.

Most people start the day with NMN capsules to make sure that they get the best absorption possible.

The growing popularity of NMN supplements have made them increasingly popular. It improves NAD levels, and it helps users to protect themselves from the changes that come with improved physical and cognitive aging. Consumers who want to change the way that their brain and body react. The formulas are easy to use, and anyone can include them in their routine.

The news and editorial staff of Sound Publishing, Inc. had no role in the preparation of this post. The views and opinions expressed in this sponsored post are those of the advertiser and do not reflect those of Sound Publishing, Inc.

Sound Publishing, Inc. does not accept liability for any loss or damages caused by the use of any products, nor do we endorse any products posted in our Marketplace.

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Compare the Top 8 Best NMN Supplements for Anti-Aging Support - Renton Reporter



Fermentation technology as a driver of human brain expansion … –

Nov 27th, 2023
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Current hypotheses on metabolic and dietary factors in human brain expansion

Over the course of 2 million years of evolution, the human brain has tripled in volume. Australopiths possessed brain volumes that were roughly the size of our closest living ape relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos (Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus)1,2,3. With the appearance of Homo, brain expansion in the human lineage began to accelerate, and continued through to the emergence of H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. Although we have much information on the timeline and extent to which the human brain has expanded in our evolution, the mechanisms which drove this expansion are more difficult to determine. Several theories have been proposed, summarized below.

The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis4 argues that the expansion of brain size in the hominin lineage required the reallocation of resources from the digestive system. In this view, the limiting factor for brain expansion is the availability of caloric resources, because brain tissue is metabolically expensive compared to most other tissue. Mutations leading to increased brain size, though they might support more adaptive behavior by the organism, would not be adaptive if they carried with them an increased risk of starvation. A reduction in the amount of gut tissue, which has metabolic needs similar to brain tissue, would free up the calories that would otherwise be used to support and maintain digestion and permit its reallocation to the brain. Supporting this model is the fact that in addition to having relatively large brains, the size of the human gastrointestinal tract is 60% of that expected for a primate of our size4.

However, because gut tissue is itself responsible for extracting nutrients from food, mutations leading to reduced gut size could not be adaptive without a prior shift to a more energy-dense, easy-to-digest food source. Empirical research has supported this model5,6,7. However, some studies across mammalian taxa suggest a more complex relationship with other metabolic investments8,9,10,11. At the same time, though, when focusing on primates, Isler and van Schaik12 found cognitive benefits of a larger brain only increase net fitness if the corresponding energetic costs are accounted for and propose dietary changes as a chief mechanism.

One such proposed dietary change is increased meat eating, which has been argued to have been central to human evolution13,14. Analysis of gut morphology in humans suggests it is adapted to both frugivory and carnivory15. While modern human diets frequently involve more meat consumption than our anthropoid relatives, and the archeological record shows fossil evidence of butchery in early Homo16,17, some authors18 argue that a shift to hunting appears later in human evolutionin the Middle to Late Paleolithic. Another possibility is that meat was acquired by other means.

Scavenging after carnivores have finished with a carcass, rather than hunting, may have been the source of meat for human ancestors19. Archeological evidence has favored scavenging over hunting20,21 but evidence from modern hunter-gatherers suggests scavenging is minimally important22, and analyses of the archeological record indicates that scavenging by early hominins offered low meat yields23,24. Bunn and colleagues have proposed that power scavenging better explains the patterns of butchery found in the hominin archeological record25,26. In this model, human ancestors (Homo) confronted carnivores to drive them from fresh kills to obtain valuable portions of meat unavailable to passive scavengers.

Another candidate modification to early hominin diets is the consumption of underground storage organs, or tubers27. The importance of foraging in human evolution, linked to the Grandmother Hypothesis, has been highlighted in the tuber-based model of increased calories28. The importance of tubers as a source of calories for hominins has been debated, however. One frequently cited source of nutritional data29 calculated the caloric value of the //ekwa tuber using samples of tubers to determine calories per gram and then multiplying by the total mass of the unearthed tuber. But in the field, Hadza hunter-gatherers discard large fibrous portions of foraged wild tubers prior to consumption30. Not only are they labor-intensive to unearth, wild foraged tubers have as little as of the caloric density reported by Vincent31, even after cooking.

Another possibility is that the modifications to food through cooking provided the necessary additional calories and nutrients to support a reduction of gut and increase in encephalization32. The hypothesis has been extended to encompass others. For example, cooked tubers have been proposed as an important component of the cooked foods diet27,28,32 and it has been suggested that scavenged carcasses were cooked to mitigate microbiological contamination33. The trend of reduction of molar size in hominin evolution, perhaps an adaptation from moving from tougher to softer foods34, fits well with this hypothesis35.

The benefits of cookingincrease in bioavailability of calories, easier mechanical digestion (especially chewing), and the lowering of energy requirements for digestionare undoubtable36,37. However, there is a lack of archeological evidence for the usage of fire by australopiths and early hominins; the earliest date for the evidence of fire by hominins is frequently cited at 1.5 mya by H. erectus during the Middle Pleistocene38. Evidence for fire mastery in the Lower Pleistocene still puts this behavior well after the initial emergence of H. erectus39, which is well after selection for brain expansion put hominins on a different course than the Pan lineage. While it is likely that the actual origins of human-controlled fire predate its oldest surviving archeological evidence, and older evidence may be newly discovered in the future, mastery of fire technology requires individuals to have the cognitive capacity to plan, create, maintain, and use fire effectively: a tall order for an organism with a brain-to-body ratio barely exceeding modern nonhuman apes. Thus, we should continue to search for other mechanisms that could have kickstarted our ancestors initial encephalization.

What dietary strategies were accessible by individuals with brains roughly the size of a chimpanzees? We outline a hypothesis, the External Fermentation Hypothesis (Fig.1). Central to this hypothesis is the realization that the gut is itself a machine for internal fermentation: digestion is accomplished via the endogenous microbiome. Culturally-transmitted food handling practices which promoted the externalization of this functionality to the extra-somatic environment could have offloaded energetic requirements from the body creating the surplus energy budget necessary for brain expansion.

A diagrammatic representation of the External Fermentation Hypothesis.

We begin with a mechanistic discussion on how external fermentation provides adaptive benefits: it increases macronutrient absorption; it increases the bioavailability of micronutrients, some of which are essential for brain development and function; it supports internal fermentation by the endogenous microbiome; and it provides additional immune benefits. We then present evidence that external fermentation specifically addresses the expensive tissue problem: the reduction in human gut size is attributable mainly to the reduction in the colon, which is the primary site of internal fermentation; furthermore, humans receive a surprisingly low amount of their calories from short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are the products of colon fermentation. Last, we consider the plausibility and explanatory power of the External Fermentation Hypothesis compared to other hypotheses.

Fermentation is the breakdown of organic compounds by enzymes into alcohol and acids. In the context of human metabolism and nutrition, this enzymatic activity typically originates from bacteria and yeasts. Internal, or gut, fermentation increases the bioavailability of nutrients during digestion.

Digestion is the process of mechanically and enzymatically breaking down organic food matter into macronutrients small enough for absorption through the intestinal barrier and into the bloodstream. The digestion of fibrous, starchy vegetable matter requires a specialized digestive system that supports internal fermentation. In ruminants, this is achieved through additional stomachs; these species are known as foregut fermenters. The hindgut fermenters (humans, other primates, and non-ruminant mammals) evolved a large colon and/or large cecum as a site for internal fermentation and a large surface area for absorption.

In humans, both the large and small intestine contain active, symbiotic bacteria. However, the small intestine contains approximately one million bacteria per mL while the colon contains up to one trillion bacteria per mL40,41,42. Combined with a longer transit time than the small intestine (approximately 14h versus 1839h), this means the action within the colon is focused on bacteria-driven fermentation. Although previously it was thought the human colon did little more than resorb water, there is a new focus on the significance of colon for human health, including immune responsivity43, nutrient absorption, and energy regulation44.

Internal fermentation increases the bodys capacity to absorb macronutrients beyond the normal function of the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented soluble fiber provides an average of 2cal/g, an additional 50% to the 4cal/g available from digestible starch and sugars. This energy is only available via the salvaging of otherwise undigested fiber through internal fermentation by gut microbes45,46. Fibers are polysaccharide structures that originate primarily in the cell walls of plants; resistant to hydrolyzation by human digestive enzymes, they pass through the small intestine unbroken47,48. Once in the colon, these fibers are fermented by enzymes from gut flora, and further degraded by secondary microorganisms into SCFAs49,50. Internal fermentation of carbohydrates into SCFAs is estimated to contribute 2-10% of total dietary energy in humans51,52,53, but contribute 16% to over 80% of maintenance energy in other mammals (see Table1).

These internal fermentation products have important biological functions. More than 80% of SCFAs take the form of butyrate, proprionate, or acetate49. Butyrate is the preferred energy source for the cells making up the colon wall47,54,55; proprionate provides a precursor for hepatic synthesis of glucose and protein56; and acetate is used to synthesize cholesterol and other long chain fatty acids, and provides energy to the heart, kidneys, muscle and fat56,57,58.

Internal fermentation is critical for the absorption of vitamins and minerals. One way this can occur is via direct synthesis of vitamins by bacteria. In the colon, vitamin K and B-complex vitamins are synthesized by multiple genera of bacteria58,59. Lastly, internal fermentation increases micronutrient bioavailability through the breakdown of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), compounds found in cereals, grains, seeds, legumes, and tubers that bind essential nutrients, preventing their absorption. Phytates and oxalates are chelating ANFs that form complexes with metal cations, preventing the absorption of these minerals60,61,62,63. Iron, zinc, magnesium, and calcium are particularly impacted by ANFs found in raw plant matter64, yet sufficient absorption of these is critical for life65,66,67.

ANFs are present in the leaves, seeds, and other plant materials that make up a significant portion of many primate species diets, including hominoids. Foraging strategies of primates suggest deliberate avoidance of plant species with high endogenous ANF content, as well as preference for younger leaves to reduce ANF burden and increase digestibility68,69. Primates that have folivory-heavy diets have evolved gut specializations for internal fermentationeither through the evolution of a complex forestomach, as in colobine monkeys70 or through the expansion of the hindgut (cecum and colon)71. Predictably, hindgut fermenters have cecum/colon volumes that correlate positively with the proportion of leaves that make up their total diet72. We propose that external fermentation may represent a parallel, alternative adaptation.

Rather than relying on the microorganisms within the gut, external fermentation is carried out by organisms in the environment or on the surface of the organic material itself. Like internal fermentation, external fermentation increases the bioavailability of ingested nutrients, specifically, the absorption of macronutrients and micronutrients. In addition, external fermentation contributes to the health and efficacy of the hosts gut microbiome, in turn, facilitating nutrient absorption.

External fermentation enhances digestibility of carbohydrates and proteins. Fermentation of legumes hydrolyzes macromolecules into more easily digestible individual amino acids73 and sugars74. These benefits have led public health scholars to recommend increasing the consumption of fermented foods in countries experiencing food insecurity and high infant mortality75,76.

External fermentation also improves the bioavailability of micronutrients in a number of ways. B-complex vitamins produced from the external fermentation of carbohydrates can increase the amounts of B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin) by up to 10-fold77,78. External fermentation can also break down ANFs.

Phytate, a chelating ANF, can be broken down by phytase, an enzyme that some mammalsbut not humanshave evolved the ability to produce endogenously79. External Lactobacillus-driven fermentation is an alternative to phytase: by lowering the pH, it provides a favorable environment for both bacterial and endogenous phytase to hydrolyze bound phytate and release minerals80. Oxalate, another chelating ANF, and tannins, ANFs which bind to and lower the bioavailability of proteins, can also be degraded through external Lactobacillus fermentations81,82. Of note, phytate is more effectively degraded by external fermentation than by cooking, as phytase bioactivity decreases above 80C83,84.

External fermentation can go further than simply increasing nutrient bioavailability. It can also render poisonous foods edible. One example is the detoxification of cyanogenic glycoside in bitter cassava (also known as yuca or manioc), a common staple for hundreds of millions of people living within the Tropical Belt75,85. If consumed unfermented, cassavas cyanogenic glycosides are hydrolyzed by colonic microorganisms and absorbed as cyanide, causing convulsions, hypotension, respiratory failure, decreased heart rate, and death85,86. When processed properly, cell walls in the cassava tuber are broken down by Lactobacillus bacteria, permitting endogenous enzymes normally sequestered from the cyanogenic glycosides to hydrolyze the toxin. The production of lactic acid during fermentation also acidifies the environment and provides a favorable milieu for other microorganisms to contribute to the hydrolysis of up to 95% of the toxin prior to consumption85,87.

The third mechanism by which external fermentation supports digestion is by supporting and contributing to the gut microflora, which in turn contributes to ongoing enhanced nutrient absorption. Ingested microflora from fermented food colonize their new environment, contributing diversity to the host microflora and boosting the guts ability to ferment more polysaccharides into energy and nutrients54,56, although the extent of incorporation of microflora in the gut is dependent on multiple factors88. Ingested probiotic bacteria also support the health of endogenous microflora by producing bacteriocins, toxins that competitively inhibit pathogens89,90. Even transient contact with certain species of microorganisms is enough to beneficially alter existing colonies of bacteria or produce anti-pathogenic metabolites90. This may effectively act as an external reservoir of bacteria necessary for internal fermentation. In many primate species, this reservoir function is supplied internally by the cecum91,92. Cecal size is larger in Old and New World monkeys and prosimians than in anthropoids, smaller in cercopithecoid monkeys, and reduced further in hominoids; of the great apes, humans have the most reduced cecum93.

By supporting the gut flora responsible for internal fermentation, external fermentation may also help protect the host from infection and disease. Once bound to colonic epithelial cells, probiotic bacteria impede pathogenic bacteria from colonizing the intestinal wall, reducing their ability to penetrate the bloodstream54,90. A healthy colon microbiome producing large amounts of SCFA through the fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates is well-linked to decreased inflammation in the gut and a reduction in gastrointestinal disorders94. As colonic epithelial cells derive the majority of their energy from SCFAs, diets low in plant fiber force colonic microorganisms to rely on dietary fats and protein, resulting in decreased SCFA production. In the absence of adequate fiber, microbes may degrade the epithelial mucus layer which can lead to sepsis95.

To summarize, then, the ingestion of externally fermented foods provides four critical components to digestion and absorption. First, it increases the digestibility of foods; second, it increases the bioavailability of micronutrients; third, it supports gut fermentation by contributing to host microfloral diversity; and lastly, it supports immune function and resistance to disruption of the gut microbiome. These benefits would have been adaptive advantages for our early ancestors and could have played a key role in human brain evolution, as we describe below.

The development of external fermentation technology represents a plausible metabolic mechanism leading to brain expansion beginning at our ancestors divergence from the australopiths. The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis posits that the reduction of gut tissue in the human lineage permits the reallocation of metabolic resources towards brain tissue, which is metabolically expensive4. The obvious paradox here is that gut tissue, while metabolically expensive as well, is the site of caloric uptake for the organism. Thus, reduced gut sizes could only evolve if our ancestors were able to exploit a more nutrient-dense and easily digestible food source. Aiello and Wheeler examined the relative proportion of the most metabolically expensive tissues outside of the brain: the heart, liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract, and found the gastrointestinal tract was 60% smaller than predicted for a primate of our size4. Taking a closer look at the gastrointestinal tract, we observe the reduction in size is not equal across organs. Colon volume in non-human great apes is twice that of the small intestine (in gorillas, close to five times the volume); whereas in humans, the ratio is reversed, with the colon having approximately one-third the volume of the small intestine14,96.

Using estimations from Milton96,97,98 on differences between the proportions of small intestine and colon in humans and apes, we calculated the approximate masses of these subcomponents by taking the midpoint values given by Milton14 and applying them to the total gastrointestinal tract values from Aiello and Wheeler4. Table2 shows these calculations; Fig.2 shows the relationship between organ sizes in a hypothetical 65kg human with ape-like organ sizes (expected) and the actual proportions in modern western humans (actual). While total gut reduction is impressive (a reduction of over 41%), the reduction is not consistent across subcomponents. Small intestine proportion actually increases, from approximately. 4kg to. 62kg in modern humans, an increase of 58%. The subcomponent which accounts for the largest share of the reduction is the colon. With a predicted ape-like value of 0.85kg, a typical human instead has an estimated mass of. 22kg, a reduction of 74%the largest reduction of any of the gut subcomponents and any of the other major organs (Table2).

Proportions of major organs in a hypothetical 65kg modern Western human using data from Table1. Expected represents the ratio of organ masses expected if humans had proportions in line with other great apes. Actual represents an estimation of the ratios in a typical modern Western human.

A smaller colon may reflect a reduction of dependence on fibrous plant material, given that a major function of the colon is to house bacteria that aid in the breakdown of enzyme-resistant carbohydrates to SCFAs. Did a shift to meat-eating, as suggested by Milton, permit this drastic reduction in colon size in the human lineage? Indeed, humans and members of the order Carnivora share a small colon size. However, the gut transit time in Carnivora is much faster than in humans. Although Milton postulates that this difference is due to our evolutionary history as plant eaters96, another explanation is that colon reduction follows from a reduced need to break down fibrous plant material within the digestive tract due increased bioavailability of nutrients before food is consumedi.e., external fermentation (Fig.1).

Is external fermentation a realistically plausible strategy for our australopith ancestors? A major hurdle is that it requires a cache of food to be stored in a location conducive to fermentation and remain there for a sufficient duration. The transport and caching of food is something that separates human ancestors from our closest extant primate relatives. Early hominins appeared to have carried food resources and stone tools to specific locations, up to 10 kilometers away99,100. Combined with the accumulating evidence that stone tools were likely knapped prior to the emergence of Homo101, it has been argued that australopiths were knapping tools, butchering animals, and carrying and caching both food and tools99,102,103. By contrast, although chimpanzees do occasionally transport tools, distances are frequently less than 500 meters and rarely reach a kilometer104. Food transport is limited to the transport of meat across short distances; most other food sources are eaten where they are acquired105.

Forethought and mechanistic understanding are not requirements for the initial emergence of external fermentation. Our early ancestors may have simply carried food back to a common location, left it there, and intermittently eaten some and added more. Re-use of a storage location could have promoted the stability of a microbial ecosystem conducive to fermentation. As new food items were brought back and added to the cache, they could have become inoculated with the microorganisms already present in the location (or on the hominids themselves).

External fermentation may have occurred for a protracted period of time in this manneras an epiphenomenon of pre-existing adaptive habits of food transport and storage. Socially-transmitted practices such as the re-use of the same storage locations, containers, or food-processing tools would have further promoted the initiation of fermentation and the stability of ongoing ferments. Over time, additional facilitation may have come from culturally reinforced norms, such as superstitions about where food must be stored or how long it must rest before being eaten. As brain size and cognitive capacity increased, understanding of the proximate causes and consequences of fermentation could have progressed in a gradual fashion. Strategic control of fermentation practices would have become increasingly complex, up to the modern day, where cumulative culture has produced a remarkable diversity of fermentation practices (see supplementary Table1).

The emergence of meat-eating, tuber-harvesting, and cooking have all been proposed to account for human brain expansion; why should our just-so story be given any additional credence? Below, we consider several explanatory advantages of the External Fermentation Hypothesis versus other current hypotheses.

In searching for an initial trigger to the upward spiral of human brain expansion, it is important to recognize that it would have to occur in organisms with brains roughly the size of a chimpanzee. The cognitive capacities of chimpanzees may arguably be less complex than those of australopiths, particularly later, larger-brained australopiths. At a minimum, we can reason that behaviors which are well within the chimpanzee repertoire were likely attainable by australopiths, and behaviors beyond this repertoire may have at least been challenging for australopiths. The possibility that ingestion of externally fermented foods has deep roots has been proposed by others. Carrigan and colleagues106 suggest that the Pan-Homo last common ancestor targeted a broad range of spontaneously fermented fruits on the forest floor, while Amato and co-workers107 propose a more specific focus on fruits with chemical and/or physical defenses that would otherwise make ingestion difficult or problematic. Amato and colleagues further suggest that Ardipithicus and early Homo both additionally incorporated fermented tubers107. Dunn and colleagues108 hypothesize that H. erectus may have been engaged in food fermentation.

Chimpanzees display a variety of complex, socially learned, instrumental behaviors oriented toward food, such as fishing for termites or honey using sticks, and fashioning spears to hunt monkeys. A well-studied example is chimpanzee nut cracking. Juvenile chimpanzees spend years learning to accomplish this using a hammer stone and anvil stone. During this time, they make errors like banging the hammer stone on the anvil stone while the nut is left resting on the ground nearby109. This suggests that chimpanzees have difficulty understanding the underlying causal mechanismi.e., that the nuts shell is opened because it was struck. Despite nut-cracking occurring in a social context with multiple expert and novice crackers in the same location, using the same tools, at the same time, understanding of the causal relationship between percussion and a cracked shell is not socially learned. Instead, each chimpanzee independently re-discovers this causal relationship for itself. The social context merely contributes a scaffold in which independent learning can occur110.

Chimpanzee stone tool use has continued substantially unchanged for at least 4,300 years111. Thus, animals with brains similarly sized to australopiths are capable of socially transmitting instrumental behaviors which are stable over long periods of time in the absence of underlying causal understanding about how the specific details of the action are related to its end goal. Aspects of behavior that are easily socially transferred by chimpanzees include memory for the objects, tools, and locations that are involved in achieving a particular goal. We propose that this is all that is required for social transmission of fermentation to take hold.

In comparison with fermentation, the means-ends dependencies between objects, actions, and outcomes in cooking are considerably more constrained and complex. Cooking requires comprehension of causal mechanisms between multiple interacting objectsi.e., a chain of sequential, dependent interactions between fuel, flames, and raw food. This is precisely the type of means-ends dependency that is challenging for chimpanzees. Thus, we propose that external fermentation poses less of a cognitive hurdle than control of fire and is thus more likely than cooking to have impacted the gut-brain tradeoff at an earlier point in evolution.

Notably, one experiment did address whether chimpanzees might have some of the cognitive skills necessary for cooking. When chimpanzees were presented with a device which, via unseen experimenter manipulation, transformed raw food to cooked food, chimpanzees deliberately used the device to obtain the latter112. Beran and colleagues113 argue that this experiment reveals more about chimpanzees food preferences and capacity for bartering or exchange behavior than it does about their capacity for cooking. We propose that these results provide evidence that chimp-sized brains are capable of understanding and performing the steps required to ferment food: put food in a particular place, wait for it to become transformed, and then enjoy an improved version.

While the utility of fire and fermentation for food processing could both be discovered accidentally, a spontaneous discovery was more probable for fermentation. Naturally occurring fire is not a daily incident, and opportunities for our ancestors to spontaneously notice its potential for cooking must have been sporadic. Although accidental cooking may have occurred (for example, the action of wildfire on animal carcasses or buried tubers), the transition from opportunistic, infrequent access to accidentally-cooked food to a long-term and stable source of extra calories would require a lightbulb moment: recognition of the effects of the accidental process, and intentional, deliberate actions to reproduce their causes. In contrast, naturally occurring fermentation is a daily incident. Bacteria and fungi are everywhere, all the time, and spontaneously colonize food; no lightbulb moment is required to transform unintentional external fermentation into a source of extra calories.

Fires require ongoing active effort to maintain, whereas fermentation is largely a passive process. Once started, an ongoing fermentation does not extinguish, and does not require tending or restarting, as fire does. Moreover, this environmental persistence offers more chances for social learning, potentially further supporting the longevity of the practice across generations.

Because brain tissue is so energetically expensive, and is intolerant of reduced energy availability, organisms with larger brains are more susceptible to fluctuating availability of food8. The evolution of increased adipose tissue in humans is a proposed adaptation to ameliorate this risk, as fat provides an internal buffer for survival through lean times11,114. External fermentation practices may have provided a secondary, external buffer. Fermentation can preserve food for years. Food spoilage is caused by microorganisms, and some of the best inhibitors of microorganisms are other microorganisms. Fermentation allows for the proliferation of non-harmful or beneficial strains which out-compete harmful strains.For example, by-products of fermentation include alcohol and acid, which inhibit further microbial growth, effectively preserving the food. There are other food storage techniques whose effective timescales are within that of fermentation, such as smoking, drying, freezing, and salting (notably, often used in combination with fermentation). However, compared to these other methods, we propose that fermentation may have been accomplishable more easily, across a wider range of environments, and by earlier, smaller-brained, less cognitively-complex ancestors.

Unlike other proposed dietary modifications, a transition to eating fermented foods does not require great leaps in cognitive ability. It does not require advanced planning, as hunting, particularly hunting in groups, would. It does not require the acquisition of a difficult technology, as in fire for cooking. It can more directly explain, than tubers, meat, or cooking, how colon fermentation could be replaced through dietary changes.

Fermentation accounts for all the benefits that cooked food offers: softer food, higher caloric content, greater bioavailability of nutrients, and protection from pathogenic microorganisms. Fermentation solves several problems. It does not require special materials beyond a place to store food (a hollow, a cave, or a hole in the ground could work). It does not require overcoming fearthere is a low barrier to entry. It can be stumbled upon rather than requiring planning and tool use. And it does not require, initially, long-term planning, focused attention, or sophisticated social coordination.

In all likelihood, for most of human history, it was nearly impossible to store food for any length of time without bacterial or fungal growth. Life-threatening illness is a risk of some food-borne microbes (e.g., E. coli, salmonella). Thus, it would have been necessary to either keep all microbial growth below potentially toxic levels (via e.g., drying, salting, smoking, or freezing), or encourage high levels of good microbial activity to out-compete the bad. The latter seems clearly easier.

Current fermentation practices can provide insight into its role in our past. We have created a detailed list of examples that provide a sense of the widespread scope and impact of fermentation technology on the human diet worldwide (Supplementary Table1). Humans deliberately ferment foods of nearly every kind, including fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, animals (muscle meat, organs, fat and bones), dairy, fish, and shellfish. Fermentation is practiced successfully in a diversity of climatic contexts, from tropical humid conditions to arctic environments. It is accomplished with a wide variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeasts. Moreover, fermentation works on a range of timescales from hours to years, effectively acting as a short-term flavor enhancer or a long-term storage technique. Our survey represents what is likely a relatively shallow and sparse representation of the full breadth of modern, historical, and pre-historical fermentation practices. For example, Neanderthals are proposed to have fermented meat to preserve vitamin C and thereby avoid scurvy115. This variability of fermentation practices represents a clear opportunity for more probative ethnographic and cultural evolution research both broadly across human populations116 as well as specific ethnographic analyses into the role that fermented meats play in pre-Industrial cultures in the tropics117.

We present this aggregation of examples as evidence supporting three points. First, given the incredible range of food types and environments that can lead to successful fermentation, it is plausible that fermentation was also possible for the food types and environments of early human ancestors. Second, it seems that fermentation is ubiquitous across extant cultures and can be considered a human universal. This is consistent with fermentation having a very early emergence. Third, while cultural practices for fermenting food vary across the globe, it seems clear that humans in general have a taste for fermented food. This preference may be an evolved mechanism which emerged because an attraction to these flavors was adaptive in our shared past. Notably, many fermented foods listed in Supplementary Table1 such as fish sauce, soy sauce, and vinegar, are condimentsi.e., substances added to other food items mainly for the purpose of improving palatability.

If our hypothesis is correct, then we might expect to find evolved innate preferences for beneficial fermentation products or evolved innate aversions to dangerous byproducts of off fermentation. Interestingly, it appears that many of the most disparately-regarded foodsseen by some as prized delicacies, and by others as supremely unappetizingare fermented: for example, thousand-year eggs, natto, and Limburger cheese. These preferences appear to be highly culturally specific, which might be adaptive given the high cultural diversity of fermentation practices and the risks of consuming a ferment gone awry. The same flavors or odors which might signal good food in one culture could emanate from off ferments in another. Future research could address the extent to which preferences for fermented products are innate, cultural, or may be the product of gene-culture coevolution118. For example, sour taste abilities have been proposed to have co-evolved with the production of fermented foods119. Notably, preferences for sour or acidic foods are relatively rare in the animal kingdom119. Human food preferences are highly variable across individuals and cultures and are culturally learned, a phenomenon which may be adaptive120. Are preferences for fermented foods more susceptible to cultural learning than other food preferences? Are they more sensitive to experience in a developmental critical period, and/or less flexible after this period closes? Are they heritable, either genetically or epigenetically121?

Fermented foods have the potential to be colonized by pathogenic microbes. How might the risks and benefits of external fermentation compare to the risks and benefits of other potential solutions to balancing the metabolic budgetary increase associated with brain enlargement? Hunting, scavenging from large carnivores, and fire use carry their own risks; perhaps the risks of fermentation were more predictable and thus more reliably mitigable through individual and cultural learning. In the environments and time periods relevant for our hypothesis, what situations might have caused a fermentation to become pathogenic? How easy would it have been for a hominid with a chimpanzee-sized brain to avoid these risks, either deliberately or via socially-learned practices? How often would off fermentation have catastrophic results versus temporary illness, and how would this have compared to injuries sustained during hunting, scavenging, or fire use? Potential answers to these questions might come from food microbiology investigations where fermentation products are studied under varying environmental conditions, or from field research with existing hunter-gatherer populations. At the same time, hosting large microbial communities within the colon likely carries its own risks, including increased risk of colonization by pathogenic microbes and increased host metabolic costs associated with immune monitoring of these communities. Reducing internal microbial load might attenuate these risks and costs, but empirical research is necessary to directly probe this cost-to-benefit ratio.

Examinations of the human microbiome could provide evidence for or against the External Fermentation Hypothesis. A comparative analysis with chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas found the human microbiome has undergone accelerated deviation from the ancestral ape state, and now shows reduced diversity122, which is consistent with modern increased reliance on commercially produced food but may also be consistent with earlier increased reliance on external microbial communities. The human microbiome also appears to have undergone alterations associated with our species increased sociality108. If early humans really offloaded internal fermentation to the external environment, we should expect to see changes in the internal microbial community associated with this shift. Would internal species associated with a particular food become less abundant over time, while the external species proliferated? Would humans internal flora adapt to now specialize in the post-fermentation product, perhaps with evolved adaptations for tolerating higher levels of fermentation by-products like acid or ethanol? Can we trace the co-evolution of gut flora and external fermentation flora as human populations have moved around the globe? Could phylogenetic analyses of human gut microbes provide a window onto the onset of fermentation practices in human evolution? Additionally, our hypothesis predicts that the human colon has a smaller microbial population than that of our ape relatives, which offers a target for empirical testing.

Genetic and genomic analyses focused on the perception of fermented foods offer opportunities for additional empirical tests. One potential target is olfactory receptor (OR) genes. Our hypothesis predicts that the human lineage may have experienced positive selection on OR genes that detect fermentation products. One analysis found 6 functional ORs showing evidence of positive selection in the human but not chimpanzee lineage, and 5 showing the reverse; two of each of these are located in the OR5 family at 11p15.4123. Most ORs are orphans, meaning the natural ligand (odorant) is unknown, but adjacent OR genes tend to detect similar compounds, and ORs at this locus generally detect n-aliphatic odorants124. De-orphaned OR5 genes respond to methyl octanoate, which has a fruity odor, is found in fruit wines, and can be produced by S. cerevisiae125, and methylvaleric acid, which is a key aroma compound in aged cheese126. We might also expect relaxed selection in the human lineage with ongoing positive selection in the chimp lineage for toxic or anti-nutritive compounds which are reduced by fermentation (e.g., oxalate, phytates). Interestingly, these compounds are bitter, and the human lineage has experienced relaxed constraint on the TAS2R gene family, which encodes for bitter taste receptors127. Modern human populations show variation both in TAS2R loci and in the ability to detect bitter taste128,129. While this evidence is suggestive, it is indirect. Additional research might leverage more probative analyses of selection in human and extinct hominin genomes or examine whether OR or TAS2R variation can be linked to preferences for fermented foods.

A further possibility is to examine genetic shifts associated with digestive, metabolic, and immune processes that may be impacted by an increased reliance on external fermentation. Notably, nonhuman apes, who do ingest fermented fruits107, show alterations to the ADH4 gene linked to ethanol processing106. The capacity to metabolize ethanol long predates the onset of hominin brain expansion and may have been associated with the transition from an arboreal to a terrestrial lifestyle as much as 10 mya106. For example, one genetic shift shared by humans and other great apes is the emergence of an additional hydroxycarbolic acid receptor, HCAR3, in addition to the two that are present in other primates. HCAR3 is activated by D-phenyllactic acid, which is an antimicrobial compound produced by lactic acid fermentation and present in sauerkraut at sufficient levels to trigger HCAR3 activation and its downstream effects including regulation of immune and energy functions130. Because alterations to ADH4 and HCAR3 were likely present in the last common ancestor of all extant hominids, they may represent pre-conditions for a reliance on external fermentation. Future work could examine whether genetic change has occurred in loci involved in metabolizing compounds in fermented foods ingested by humans but not other apes.

We have proposed that the acquisition of fermentation technology by early homininsthe External Fermentation Hypothesisis a good candidate mechanism for human brain expansion and gut reduction. The offloading of gut fermentation into an external cultural practice may have been an important hominin innovation that laid out the metabolic conditions necessary for selection for brain expansion to take hold. While the potential importance of fermentation in the evolving human diet has recently been postulated108, and the reduction in human colon size has been previously observed14, to the best of our knowledge, the possibility that external fermentation served as the initial trigger in the human lineage for the expansion of brains and the reduction of the gutspecifically, the colonhas so far been unnoticed. We have discussed the adaptive benefits of this hypothesized scenario, its realistic plausibility, and its explanatory power relative to other hypotheses. We invite commentary and experimental tests from the broader academic community.

Fermentation technology as a driver of human brain expansion ... -



Destiny Keto ACV Gummies Reviewed – Is It Legit? You Wont … – Sequim Gazette

Nov 19th, 2023
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Sponsored Destiny Keto ACV Gummies Reviewed Is It Legit? You Wont Believe This!

November 17, 2023 1:30 am

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Destiny Keto ACV Gummies Reviewed - Is It Legit? You Wont ... - Sequim Gazette



Model Linda Evangelista Recalls Extreme ‘Cleanses’ In The 90s … – The Daily Wire

Nov 19th, 2023
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Supermodel Linda Evangelista said that shes used unhealthy methods in the past to maintain her slim physique.

The 58-year-old Canadian-born star made the revelations on an episode of the podcast Ruthies Table 4, saying she used cleanses and other extreme methods to lose weight while she was working in the fashion industry.

I started doing cleanses all the time, and I loved doing these cleanses, but I think they were very harmful to me, Evangelista said during the interview. She recalled doing the popular Master Cleanse, a liquid juice fast made popular by Beyonce in 2006.

I did the Master Cleanse quite a few times, but I would do medicinal cleanses, where its like a powder drink, like the rice base theres different brands that do them, the model continued.

You just do liquids, mostly water with lemon and mints and teas, and you get a glass of juice a day, and you get a diluted watered-down vegetable once a day called a soup, Evangelista said of the methods she used while attending different medical spas. But its basically a starvation diet.

Its been quite the journey. I will never do the deprivation I wont do that again, she added.

While Evangelista isnt interested in long-term deprivation diets, she did admit to still enjoying a nice 24-hour fast of just celery juice occasionally. I do still enjoy doing something like that. I find it refreshing, and you kick-start your head and your mind into a new place of like, OK, Im going to get on this healthy track.'

The model made headlines in 2022 after going public about being permanently deformed following a botched plastic surgery procedure, as The Daily Wire previously reported. Evangelista had undergone the fat-reducing procedure CoolSculpting in 2015 but had an adverse reaction which caused her to retain fat tissue rather than lose it.


Evangelista said she stopped eating to try to counteract the fat growth but it wasnt enough to stop large bulges from forming on her body. Her appearance changed so much that she didnt want to leave the house.

I loved being up on the catwalk. Now I dread running into someone I know, the former model told People at the time. I cant live like this anymore, in hiding and shame. I just couldnt live in this pain any longer. Im willing to finally speak.

The model filed a lawsuit against CoolSculptings parent company, Zeltiq Aesthetics Inc, for $50 million in damages. The case was settled in July 2022 for an undisclosed amount.

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New weight-loss drugs appear safe and effective for people living … – aidsmap

Nov 19th, 2023
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Weight-loss medications, including the popular glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists semaglutide (Wegovy) and tirzepatide(Mounjaro), look like a promising option for people with HIV, although data are limited and more studies are needed.

Weight gain is a growing concern for people living with HIV and their health care providers. Not only do many people find weight gain and body shape changes distressing, they also raise the risk for cardiovascular disease and other health problems. HIV-positive people are often urged to take steps to manage their weight, but this is easier said than done.

Lifestyle changes, exercise and diet are incredibly important for your health, but to shift weight downwards in someone with established weight gain is next to impossible, Professor Francois Venter of the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa said at the International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2023) in July. You really do need pharmaceutical or surgical help.

As aidsmap has reported, research has yielded conflicting data about weight changes after starting or switching antiretrovirals, especially integrase inhibitors. Numerous studies have found that people who start a new regimen can gain weight, sometimes as much as 5-10kg. This appears to be more likely when people switch away from tenofovir disoproxil or efavirenz, which have a weight-suppressing effect. But in general, changing antiretrovirals in an effort to lose weight does not seem to have much effect. Weight gain among people with HIV may also be attributable to a return to health after starting treatment or normal changes that occur with age.

A group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood sugar (glucose). Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce insulin, which is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin normally (insulin resistance). Common symptoms of diabetes include frequent urination, unusual thirst and extreme hunger. Some antiretroviral drugs may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Pertaining to the internal organs. Visceral fat is fat tissue that is located deep in the abdomen and around internal organs.

A pill or liquid which looks and tastes exactly like a real drug, but contains no active substance.

A class of antiretroviraldrugs. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) block integrase, which is an HIV enzyme that the virus uses to insert its genetic material into a cell that it has infected. Blocking integrase prevents HIV from replicating.

In cell biology, a structure on the surface of a cell (or inside a cell) that selectively receives and binds to a specific substance. There are many receptors. CD4 T cells are called that way because they have a protein called CD4 on their surface. Before entering (infecting) a CD4 T cell (that will become a host cell), HIV binds to the CD4 receptor and its coreceptor.

The use of weight-loss medications has skyrocketed in recent years. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has authorised the use of Wegovy for people with obesity or overweight. (The same drug was previously approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes under the brand name Ozempic.) On 9 November, theEMAs Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use recommended expanding the indication for tirzepatide, previously approved for diabetes, to include weight management. (In the United States, tirzepatide was recently approved for weight management under the brand name Zepbound.)

Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that mimics a natural hormone that suppresses appetite, regulates insulin and blood sugar levels and slows emptying of the stomach. Tirzepatide mimics the action of both GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Other related drugs, including orforglipron and retatrutide (which mimics three hormones), are currently in the pipeline.

Semaglutide and tirzepatide are generally safe, but they can cause side effects including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. More serious adverse events may include gastroparesis (stomach paralysis) and pancreatitis. They can lead to loss of lean muscle mass as well as fat, which may be a concern for older people. Whats more, the drugs are expensive and they may need to be used long term, as weight typically rebounds after they are discontinued.

In clinical trials of HIV-negative people, non-diabetic adults with obesity who used semaglutide reduced their weight by around 15% on average, while those who used higher doses of tirzepatide lost around 20%. Semaglutide may also improve fatty liver disease, and a recent study showed that it reduced the risk of heart attacks and strokes in non-diabetic people with obesity and cardiovascular disease.

To date, there has not been much specific research on weight loss medications for people with HIV, but data are starting to emerge.

As reported at the IAS conference, Marisa Brizzi of the University of Cincinnati and colleagues evaluated the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on metabolic outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative people with type 2 diabetes. They hypothesised that GLP-1 might be depleted during HIV infection and that integrase inhibitors might disrupt fat cells, affect hormones that regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, stimulate appetite or reduce insulin sensitivity.

This retrospective cohort study included 15 adults with HIV matched with 30 HIV-negative people. Nearly 90% were men and the mean age was 57 years. Most of the HIV-positive people were on integrase inhibitors. Nearly three quarters used dulaglutide (Trulicity) and 13% used liraglutide (Victoza for diabetes or Saxenda for weight loss), two older and less effective drugs; only 13% used semaglutide and none used tirzepatide.

HIV-positive people with diabetes lost 10.4kg, on average, compared with 1.7kg for HIV-negative people, or 8.0% versus 1.5% of their baseline body weight. Whats more, 60% of people with HIV achieved at least 5% weight loss, compared with 33% of HIV-negative participants.

In this cohort, people with HIV and diabetes had significantly greater weight loss compared to people with diabetes alone, the researchers concluded. The greater weight loss observed in people with HIV may be related to differences in the mechanistic pathways leading to weight gain.

While these results appear to suggest that people with HIV might benefit more from weight-loss drugs, most participants used older medications and the amount of weight lost in the HIV-negative group was substantially lower than that seen in pivotal trials of semaglutide and tirzepatide for people without diabetes.

In a related study, presented at IDWeek in Boston in October, Quynh Nguyen of the University of California San Diego and colleagues looked at prescribing practices and clinical outcomes among people with HIV who used weight-loss drugs. This retrospective cohort study included 225 adults who were classified as overweight or obese and who were prescribed GLP-1 receptor agonists between February 2021 and February 2023. A majority were men and the average age was 54 years. Most were on integrase inhibitors, 90% had an undetectable viral load and CD4 counts were high.

In this study, 53% received injectable semaglutide, 31% used dulaglutide, 8% used an oral formulation of semaglutide, 6% used tirzepatide and 3% used liraglutide. Ninety-nine people (43%) received the drugs for weight management alone, while the rest also had type 2 diabetes.

People who received GLP-1 drugs lost 5.4kg, on average. Nearly a quarter achieved greater than 5% weight loss, body mass index (BMI) fell by 1.8 and 18% went from obesity to overweight classification; blood glucose (haemoglobin A1C) also decreased.Those without diabetes tended to lose more weight. People with a higher baseline BMI and longer duration of treatment were more likely to experience greater than 5% weight loss, while those who used dulaglutide were less likely to do so. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, HIV viral load, CD4 count and antiretroviral regimen were not predictive of weight change.

Use of GLP-1 receptor agonists led to improvements in weight, BMI and haemoglobin A1C among people with HIV and offers an additional strategy to address weight gain and related metabolic complications, the researchers concluded.

In another study presented at IDWeek, Professor Grace McComsey, of Case Western Reserve University in Ohio and colleagues assessed the effects of semaglutide on lipohypertrophy, or abnormal fat accumulation. McComsey noted that its not just weight that matters but also where fat is located. Visceral fat within the abdomen is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and other health problems than subcutaneous fat under the skin.

This trial enrolled 108 non-diabetic adults on stable antiretroviral therapy with viral suppression. A majority (60%) were men and the median age was 52 years. More than 80% were on integrase inhibitors and CD4 counts were high. They had a BMI of 25 or higher (indicating overweight or obesity), a large waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio and reported that they developed increased abdominal girth after starting antiretrovirals. They were randomly assigned to receive semaglutide or a placebo once weekly for 32 weeks. CT and DEXA scans weredone to measure total, visceral, subcutaneous, trunk and limb fat, lean body mass and body composition.

Body weight fell by 8.3% in the semaglutide group while rising by 0.2% in the placebo group. A majority (65%) of people taking semaglutide, but only 4% of those taking the placebo, achieved at least 5% weight loss. BMI also decreased significantly in the semaglutide group.

" HIV-positive people are often urged to take steps to manage their weight, but this is easier said than done."

Total fat fell by 15% in the semaglutide group but rose by 0.2% in the placebo group. Visceral and trunk fat fell by 13% and 17% in the semaglutide group but increased by 5% and 0.4%, respectively, in the placebo group. Subcutaneous and limb fat both fell by 13% in the semaglutide group; in the placebo group, subcutaneous fat rose by 1.5% and limb fat was unchanged. Lean body mass fell by 5.4% in the semaglutide group compared with just 0.6% in the placebo group. However, fat accumulation in the liver and around the heart did not change much in either group.

Semaglutide was safe and well tolerated, McComsey reported. Side effects were common, but severe or serious adverse events were rare. Adherence was good despite the COVID-19 pandemic and the need for weekly injection visits. (Outside of clinical trials, most people use self-injection pens.)

Semaglutide significantly decreased central fat in people with HIV with lipohypertrophy, primarily driven by reductions in visceral adipose tissue, the researchers concluded. Semaglutide may offer an effective treatment to decrease visceral adiposity and reduce comorbidity risk.

McComsey noted that the loss of lean body mass could be a problem for a population prone to losing muscle mass over time, and there is concern that lipoatrophy, or fat wasting in the face and limbs, could potentially worsen.

A study presented at the recent European AIDS Conference (EACS 2023) in Warsaw raised another potential concern. Dr Sebastian Noe of MVZ Mnchen am Goetheplatz and colleagues assessed the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on circulating CD4 cells in people living with HIV with sustained viral suppression. Based on previous studies of related drugs, they hypothesised that these medications might lead to a decrease in CD4 counts.

This retrospective analysis included 76 people with HIV treated with semaglutide or dulaglutide for type 2 diabetes or obesity at two HIV clinics in Germany. Most were white men in their fifties and about half had diabetes. The median current CD4 count was high, above 800, but the median nadir (lowest-ever) count was just under 300. The data suggested that GLP-1 receptor agonist use might be associated with a non-time-dependent decrease in CD4 cells, with a median decrease of 64 cells, but not everyone was equally affected. Further research is needed to confirm our findings and to identify people living with HIV at risk of a relevant decrease in CD4 cells, the researchers concluded. The clinical relevance of these findings merits further investigation.

Finally, another study at IDWeek evaluated the effect of tesamorelin (Egrifta) on visceral fat in people taking integrase inhibitors. Tesamorelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor analogue, works differently from GLP-1 receptor agonists, acting on the pituitary gland in the brain to stimulate growth hormone production. It is approved in the United States, but its EMA application was withdrawn.

A previous study showed that tesamorelin reduced visceral adipose tissue by about 15% in HIV-positive people with lipohypertrophy, but the research was done before integrase inhibitors were the preferred treatment for HIV. Therefore, Dr Taryn McLaughlin of Theratechnologies and colleagues asked whether it would have a similar effect for people taking newer regimens. The researchers drew on data from a previous trial that enrolled 61 HIV-positive participants with fatty liver disease. Of these, 39 (64%) were on integrase inhibitors, most commonly dolutegravir. They were randomly assigned to take tesamorelin or a placebo for 52 weeks.

At baseline, demographics, HIV-related variables and body composition measurements were similar for integrase inhibitor recipients and those taking other antiretrovirals. Over a year of treatment, BMI did not change significantly in either the tesamorelin or placebo groups. Integrase inhibitor recipients assigned to receive tesamorelin saw an 8.3% reduction in visceral adipose tissue, while placebo recipients had a 10.8% increase. Furthermore, the tesamorelin group experienced a 5% decline in liver fat from baseline while the placebo group saw no change. People taking integrase inhibitors in the placebo group experienced a gain in visceral fat despite no change in BMI, while tesamorelin reduced both visceral and liver fat, the researchers concluded.

Taken together, these studies indicate that weight-loss medications hold promise for people with HIV who struggle to lose weight or reduce abdominal fat. But the medications are not without drawbacks, including side effects and cost.

GLP-1 agonists are revolutionizing the treatment of obesity in the general population, and I have no doubt they will do the same in people with HIV, Dr Rajesh Gandhi of Harvard Medical School, commented in a New England Journal of Medicine IDWeek conference update.

Because some people with HIV have fat maldistribution, with disproportionate central adipose tissue hypertrophy, the finding that semaglutide reduces visceral adipose tissue is particularly welcome, he continued. We have known for years that excessive visceral fat is associated with an increased risk for cardiac disease, so the impact of GLP-1 agonists on cardiometabolic health in people with HIV could be substantial.

Venter, however, took a more cautious tone, noting that advocacy will be needed to get the greatest benefits from weight-loss medications for people living with HIV.

In the last few weeks alone, theres been an explosion of new agents, but they are eye-wateringly expensive in rich countries and completely unavailable in low- and middle-income countries, he said at the IAS conference. The levels of cost of these agents and the levels of overweight that were seeing in these communities are going to require some focussed activism in terms of access to these drugs, because theres no way were going to be able to deal with thisWe need to start testing these agents in the HIV-positive population so that we can get access to these drugs for our patients as quickly as possible.

One such study, the SWIFT trial (NCT04174755), is currently underway in Ireland. It compares semaglutide plus a lifestyle intervention against lifestyle changes alone; results are expected in 2025.

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New weight-loss drugs appear safe and effective for people living ... - aidsmap



Top 5 Best Belly Fat Burners For Women That Work for Weight Loss – Kent Reporter

Nov 19th, 2023
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When it comes to losing weight, many factors can affect the results you see. This can include things like your gender and where the stored body fat you are trying to burn is kept, as women may lose weight slower than men, while it tends to be harder to lose belly fat than it is to burn fat anywhere else.

This makes a belly fat burner a great way to help females lose stomach fat and shed excess body weight. The only problem is, with so many belly fat burners for women on the market, all of which use unusual ingredients, it can be hard to know which fat burner to use on your weight loss journey.

We have created the following guide to the best fat burners for women today. We will give you all the information you could need to help all women lose weight safely and quickly, shed stubborn belly fat, and achieve the body composition and physique of their dreams.

Below is our list of the five best fat burners for women:

Male and female bodies burn stored fat in slightly different ways, so fat burners for women and men will work differently, too. Hourglass Fit is a specifically designed female fat burner that aids weight loss and fat burning while considering all of the specific needs of a womans body.

The Hourglass Fit weight loss pills use optimal doses of cayenne pepper extract, black pepper extract, chromium, glucomannan, 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan), zinc, and the essential vitamins B2, B6, and B12. This means it is also an example of a rare supplement known as a stimulant-free fat burner.

Cayenne pepper extract boasts the chemical capsaicin, which triggers thermogenesis. Thermogenic fat burners raise your internal body temperature to increase body fat metabolism, boost your metabolic rate, and cause your body to burn fat and more calories than usual.

It is also an appetite suppressant and anti-inflammatory that can help you consume fewer calories, stick to a healthy diet, and avoid developing pains or injuries that would make sticking to an exercise routine challenging.

Black pepper extract also promotes thermogenesis, but it is mainly added to diet pills like fat burners due to the presence of a bioavailability enhancer, the alkaloid piperine. This means it can improve the absorption and efficacy of every other ingredient that the fat-burning pills contain.

Glucomannan, 5-htp, and chromium are all capable of suppressing appetite. Still, they all work in very different ways, so they are incredibly effective when combined with one fat burner, as they suppress appetite mentally and physically.

Glucomannan is a type of soluble dietary fiber that is very low in calories. It expands significantly when it comes into contact with water in your gut.

This takes up space, fills you up, removes the desire to eat, and helps you reduce your calorie intake while also causing the food you do eat to be released much more slowly, which ensures all the nutrients are effectively digested and utilized, instead of being turned into stored fat and leading to weight gain.

The amino acid 5-htp can cross the blood-brain barrier and stimulate serotonin production. Higher levels of this neurotransmitter suppress appetite, boost your mood, improve your sleep quality and focus, help you relax, prevent anxiety, depression, and hormonal weight gain, and aid stubborn body fat loss.

The mineral and metal chromium also boost your serotonin production and focus while reducing your blood sugar levels, enhancing nutrient absorption and utilization, and making all other ingredients in a weight loss supplement easier to absorb and more effective.

The three B vitamins boost metabolism, nutrient absorption, immune and nervous system health and functions, antibody, bone marrow, DNA, nerve sheath, red blood cell production and maintenance, cell respiration, bodily tissue repair, and overall health.

Lastly, the metal element and mineral zinc are put in diet pills to stimulate the pituitary gland and improve luteinizing hormone and testosterone production. It also boosts DNA synthesis, energy levels, eyesight, immune functions, metabolism, and recovery time and reduces inflammation and the signs of aging.

As it can suppress appetite and boost fat metabolism, energy levels, and metabolic rate all at once, Hourglass Fit can help promote weight loss from every angle. It is the best fat burner for women and is designed specifically for the female body.

Instant Knockout Cut is a thermogenic fat burner supplement made to help professional combat athletes burn stubborn body fat and lose weight quickly while preserving muscle mass in the build-up to a fight, without using any ingredients that could risk them being banned from their chosen discipline.

The Instant Knockout Cut formula only uses clinically proven natural ingredients that work in harmony with each other. It contains glucomannan, caffeine, black pepper extract, cayenne, green tea extract, l-theanine, and vitamins B6, B12, and D3.

Glucomannan, black pepper, cayenne pepper, and the B vitamins were all present in Hourglass Fit. They will again benefit from fat burning, weight loss, nutrient absorption, appetite suppression, and inflammation in the same ways they previously did.

Caffeine is a popular and potent stimulant known to boost metabolism and energy levels. It also promotes thermogenesis, enhances fat burning, brain functions and focus, and reduces fatigue, which will help you train longer and harder and burn calories and fat even faster than before.

Green tea extract is a source of natural caffeine that can boost metabolism, energy production, and fat loss. However, it also contains an antioxidant catechin called EGCG. This reduces inflammation and pain and prevents the bloating and digestive tract blockages that dietary fibers can cause.

L-theanine is an amino acid that prevents the side effects stimulants like caffeine can sometimes cause, like crashes. It also improves your recovery time, sleep quality, and focus, promotes calmness and relaxation, and makes you more energetic, which helps you train harder and prevents fat storage.

Finally, vitamin D3 will prevent vitamin D deficiencies from developing. It is put in fat burners to control body fat storage, boost testosterone production, protein synthesis, and energy levels, accelerate body weight and fat loss, and keep your body healthy.

While not one of the specially designed fat burners for women on our list, Instant Knockout Cut is the best thermogenic fat burner supplement on the market. That makes it one of the best fat burners for women seeking to burn stubborn fat stores and preserve lean muscle mass by any means necessary.

Hunter Burn is a fat-burning supplement that works to help you lose body weight by suppressing appetite, increasing the rate at which the body burns stored fat, and preventing you from storing any new fat. This makes it a perfect weight loss pill for women with issues sticking to a healthy diet.

The Hunter Burn fat-burning pills consist primarily of ingredients we have already seen in other fat-burner supplements, such as green tea extract, glucomannan, cayenne pepper extract, vitamin D3, and l-theanine. However, it also features one new ingredient: white kidney bean extract.

Green tea extract, glucomannan, cayenne pepper extract, vitamin D3, and l-theanine still boost fat loss, energy, workout performance, focus, immune health and functions, sleep quality, nutrient absorption, and relaxation, suppress appetite, and reduce anxiety, bloating, inflammation, stress, and fat gain.

White kidney bean extract, sometimes known as phase 2, inhibits the digestion of some dietary starches you consume. This leads to them not being broken down and sitting in your gut until they are either fermented by the bacteria in the colon or excreted out with the rest of your waste.

As a result, your body will absorb fewer calories than usual, preventing you from storing body fat while keeping your blood sugar levels down. This makes it an ideal inclusion in fat burners for women who struggle not to consume more calories or carbohydrates than they should.

By utilizing both appetite suppressant and fat-burning ingredients, all in their optimal dosages, Hunter Burn is a fat burner that can help women train harder and more frequently, forget about eating, recover faster, and burn stored fat at a higher rate.

It is just one dietary supplement in the Hunter Evolve range and can be combined with the other two to optimize your overall health and fitness. Hunter Burn is an effective fat burner for women struggling with weight loss.

TrimTone is a weight loss supplement designed for women that functions like a mild appetite suppressant that boosts your energy. This has made it one of the most popular fat burner supplements for women before exercising, as it can double up as a pre-workout.

The TrimTone formula contains five ingredients: glucomannan, green tea extract, caffeine, coffee bean extract, and grains of paradise.

Glucomannan, green tea extract, and caffeine were in the other fat burners we saw, and they again boost energy, metabolism, nutrient absorption, workout performance, fat burning and brain, heart, and immune health and functions, and reduce hunger, inflammation, blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol.

Green coffee bean extract is made from unroasted green coffee beans, which are rich in caffeine and an antioxidant compound called chlorogenic acid, and it offers similar benefits to green tea extract.

The natural caffeine will make the body burn fat, boost energy levels, and help you train harder. The acid reduces carbohydrate absorption, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, prevents blood sugar spikes, fat, and weight gain, and boosts your metabolic rate.

Grains of Paradise is a herb in the ginger family that is said to be a natural fat burner with thermogenic properties. It is claimed to activate the brown adipose tissue stores in your body, a substance that burns fat and promotes weight loss without causing you to lose any of your lean muscle mass.

However, there are a few issues with the TrimTone natural fat burner that we need to discuss.

Not only will it not suppress your appetite, burn fat, or directly stimulate weight loss, as well as some of the best fat burners, but more trials are also needed to prove just how effective green coffee bean extract and grains of paradise are when it comes to losing weight.

It is also one of the pricier natural fat burners on the market and can cause some mild side effects.

However, suppose you are a woman seeking weight loss supplements to boost your energy levels and suppress your appetite. In that case, so you can finally get rid of your belly fat, TrimTone may be one of the best fat burners to help you enjoy natural weight loss.

Leanbean is another dedicated female belly fat burner supplement that is great for helping you control your hunger and sugar cravings. It is also completely gluten-free and vegan-friendly and is one of the most affordable fat-burning supplements today.

The Leanbean formula consists of glucomannan, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, green coffee bean extract, choline, potassium chloride, and acai berry extract.

We have seen glucomannan, green coffee bean extract, and vitamins B6 and B12 before in the other fat burners that we have looked at, and they will again deliver all of the same effects to differing degrees.

Theyll boost your metabolic rate, belly fat loss, nutrient absorption, and energy levels, stop you from gaining weight or fat, reduce appetite, inflammation, carbohydrate absorption, and your blood sugar and blood pressure levels, and improve the health and functions of numerous organs and systems in your body.

Choline is a nutrient structurally similar to a B vitamin or amino acid. It is included in fat burners due to its purported ability to enhance muscular contractions and focus while reducing inflammation. This would enable you to train harder and enjoy significantly improved weight loss, fat-burning, and muscle growth rates.

Potassium chloride consists of the mineral potassium and the electrolyte chloride. It is put in fat burners to improve blood pressure, gut health, energy levels, exercise performance, weight loss, fitness, and mood, boost cell and internal organ health, and prevent or treat various illnesses.

Finally, on rare occasions, acai berry extract is added to fat burners as it is said to reduce inflammation, swelling, and cholesterol and blood sugar levels, boost immune system health and functions, combat a range of illnesses, stop you gaining fat, and keep you generally healthy so you can keep exercising.

There are, admittedly, a couple of issues with the Leanbean fat burner that we do have to point out.

Not only is it less effective as an appetite suppressant or fat burner than many of the best weight loss supplements, but some of its ingredients also need much more research to prove they are beneficial in fat burners.

Despite its drawbacks, it is still one of the most popular fat burners for women, as it aids weight loss while having a fair price tag. So, if you are a woman looking for a fat burner to help you lose weight while shopping on a very tight budget, Leanbean may be one of the best fat burners to try.

Belly fat burners for women are a great way to help all women lose weight and accelerate stomach fat burning. There is a range of great fat burners for women on the market to help them achieve the weight loss they seek, but the best fat burner for most women will be Hourglass Fit.

Hourglass Fit is a specially designed fat-burning supplement for women, packed with optimal doses of numerous proven natural ingredients. This supplement is tailored to the female to promote fat burning and overall health.

If they do not sound like weight loss pills for you, then one of the other picks on our list of the best fat burners for women surely will. For everyone else, though, we strongly suggest that you try Hourglass Fit and see how it can aid excess belly fat burning and weight loss for yourself.

The news and editorial staff of Sound Publishing, Inc. had no role in the preparation of this post. The views and opinions expressed in this sponsored post are those of the advertiser and do not reflect those of Sound Publishing, Inc.

Sound Publishing, Inc. does not accept liability for any loss or damages caused by the use of any products, nor do we endorse any products posted in our Marketplace.

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Top 5 Best Belly Fat Burners For Women That Work for Weight Loss - Kent Reporter



Lilly To Build 1st Factory in Germany as Demand for Weight-Loss … – Investopedia

Nov 19th, 2023
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Key Takeaways

Pharmaceuticals maker Eli Lilly (LLY) is building its first facility in Germany in response to the booming demand for weight-loss drugs.

Lilly reportedly said that it would be spending 2.3 billion euros ($2.5 billion) to construct the high-tech factory in Alzey, Germany. The drug maker noted the plant will further expand its injectable product and device manufacturing network and support an increased demand for Lillys medicines, including its diabetes and obesity portfolio.

Lillys injectable diabetes drug, Mounjaro, has been shown to help patients lose weight, and a second medicine, Zepbound, containing the active ingredient in Mounjaro, last week received Food and Drug Administration approval for use as a weight-loss treatment. That news sent Lilly shares to an all-time high.

With the addition of the Alzey location, Lilly will have six manufacturing sites in Europe. The company said that it has announced $11 billion in investments in its worldwide manufacturing footprint over the past three years, Reuters reported.

Shares of Eli Lilly were up modestly Friday, and have added about two-thirds to their value this year.

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Lilly To Build 1st Factory in Germany as Demand for Weight-Loss ... - Investopedia



Toning down the hype over Ozempic’s impact on food sales –

Nov 19th, 2023
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KANSAS CITY To judge by the buzz, the impact on the food industry of the growing popularity of GLP-1 drugs will be nothing short of seismic.

Numerous media outlets have published stories with menacing headlines for the food industry, including CNN: Ozempic is on the rise. That could be a problem for food companies; The Wall Street Journal: Americas Food Giants Confront the Ozempic Era; and Bloomberg: Ozempic is making people buy less food, Walmart says.

Its not just the media. One stock analyst recently slashed the price target for Krispy Kreme, Inc. because of the surging popularity of the drugs.

With brand names that include Ozempic, Wegovy, Trulicity, Rybelsus and Mounjaro, GLP-1 drugs are prescribed for type 2 diabetes and, more recently, for obesity and work by activating receptors in the pancreas leading to increased insulin production and reduced appetite.

Sales growth of the drugs has been and remains impressive. Novo Nordisk A/S, the market leader in the GLP-1 class of drugs with just over a 50% market share, said its obesity care sales were up 174% in the first nine months of 2023, mostly driven by US demand. US sales of GLP-1 drugs by Novo in the most recent quarter equated to about $2.5 billion per month.

Agitation over the potential impact of the medications has been exacerbated by surveys showing tens of millions of respondents expressing an interest in a drug that could help them lose weight safely, and by estimates that those on the medication may consume much less food. In one-peer reviewed study, subjects taking GLP-1 consumed 35% fewer calories than subjects given a placebo.

Executives from some of the largest food companies have been asked about the effects of the drug on their businesses, and many have weighed in on the subject. Robert B. Quincey, chairman and chief executive officer of Coca Cola Co., said It is an area that we are very focused on. He projected confidence, concluding that Coke is well positioned with what he called a total beverage strategy that includes both caloric and sugar-free beverages.

Ulf Mark Schneider, CEO of Nestle SA, similarly said its brands such as Boost and Optifast may benefit from a possible increase in the number of consumers seeking fortified foods because they are consuming fewer calories. At the same time, he cautioned that demand for confectionery products and perhaps ice cream may be adversely affected.

Like most executives asked about the subject, neither Mr. Quincey nor Mr. Schneider tried to quantify the effects the medications may have.

One executive who offered a sense of the prospective effects of GLP-1 drugs on his companys business, particularly snacks, was Dirk Van de Put, chairman and CEO of Mondelez International, Inc.

Saying he has examined the topic closely, Mr. Van de Put in a Nov. 1 conference call concluded the subject has been overblown.

We do estimates, we do projections, we talk to pharmaceutical companies, we talk to consumers and so on, he said. So, were staying close to the subject.

In the long run, 10 years down the road, he said current analysis suggests a worst-case scenario would be an adverse effect on volume of between 0.5% and 1%.

That assumes quite significant adoption rates of the drug, he said.

The market for the medications is still developing, and Mr. Van de Put conceded the possibility that the impact may be greater than Mondelezs current forecasts. As of late 2022, it was estimated that fewer than 3% of Americans were taking GLP-1. While growth remains strong, it is far from clear how many people will be able to afford and will choose to take the drug, which has some undesirable side effects, and how many fewer calories they will consume. For food executives to closely monitor this developing makes good sense. Overreacting does not.

Toning down the hype over Ozempic's impact on food sales -



The Smoothie Diet Reviews: Fake or Legit? 21 Day Weight Loss … – The Jerusalem Post

Nov 19th, 2023
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Losing weight can be a challenging task, but with the right program, it becomes much easier. One such program is The Smoothie Diet: 21 Day Rapid Weight Loss Program. Created by fitness coach Drew Sgoutas, this program offers a natural and effective way to shed those extra pounds in just three weeks. By incorporating specially formulated smoothie recipes into your daily routine, you can achieve rapid weight loss and improve your overall health. In this article, we will explore the key components, benefits, and user experiences of The Smoothie Diet: 21 Day Rapid Weight Loss Program.

The Smoothie Diet is a 21-day regimen designed to help individuals lose weight in a healthy and sustainable way. The program involves replacing two meals per day with nutrient-rich smoothies and enjoying one regular meal. This approach allows you to increase your intake of fruits and vegetables while reducing the consumption of processed foods.

Drew Sgoutas, a renowned fitness coach and nutritional expert, created The Smoothie Diet based on his extensive experience working with clients. He carefully analyzed the dietary habits of his clients and combined his findings with his coaching expertise to develop a program that delivers effective weight loss results.

The Smoothie Diet focuses on providing the body with essential nutrients while promoting healthy eating habits. By following the program for 21 days, you can establish a foundation for long-term weight management and improved overall well-being.

The Smoothie Diet Presentation (credit: PR)

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The Smoothie Diet provides a detailed daily schedule for the entire three-week program. Each day, you will be assigned specific smoothie recipes that are easy to customize according to your preferences. The program also allows for two low-calorie snacks per day in addition to one regular meal. This comprehensive plan ensures that you stay on track and achieve optimal results.

To make your grocery shopping experience hassle-free, The Smoothie Diet includes weekly shopping lists for all the smoothie recipes. By having a well-organized list, you can ensure that you have all the necessary ingredients on hand, avoiding last-minute trips to the store. The program also provides alternative ingredient options, making it easy to adapt the recipes to your specific needs and preferences.

The Smoothie Diet program offers step-by-step instructions on how to prepare each smoothie recipe. This eliminates the need for trial and error, allowing you to start making delicious and nutrient-dense smoothies right away. The recipes are designed to be quick and easy, making them perfect for individuals with busy lifestyles.

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One of the primary selling points of The Smoothie Diet is its customizability. The program provides a variety of smoothie recipes, allowing you to choose the ones that suit your taste preferences and dietary requirements. If a particular ingredient is not suitable or readily available, you can easily swap it out with an alternative from the provided list. This flexibility ensures that you can enjoy the program while still meeting your individual needs.

The Smoothie Diet program is reasonably priced, considering the wealth of resources it offers. For just $37, you gain access to the complete program, including the 21-day schedule, shopping lists, and smoothie recipes. Additionally, a money-back guarantee is provided to give you peace of mind. The program is a cost-effective solution for those looking to lose weight without breaking the bank.

The Smoothie Diet Pricing (credit: PR)

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Unlike many other weight loss programs that solely focus on shedding pounds, The Smoothie Diet takes a holistic approach to health. By increasing your intake of fruits and vegetables, you not only support weight loss but also provide your body with essential nutrients. Many individuals who have followed The Smoothie Diet have reported improvements in their skin, energy levels, and overall well-being.

The Smoothie Diet program is entirely digital, making it accessible to everyone. You can easily download the materials to your preferred device and have them at your fingertips. This eliminates the need for physical copies and allows for convenient access wherever you go. All you need is a blender and a few dollars to get started on your weight loss journey.

The Smoothie Diet is suitable for individuals who are looking for a natural and effective way to lose weight. It is important to note that this program is not intended for long-term use or as a complete meal replacement. It is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any weight loss program, especially if you have any underlying health conditions.

To achieve the best results with The Smoothie Diet, it is essential to follow the program guidelines. While you have the flexibility to customize the recipes, it is recommended to replace two meals per day with smoothies and enjoy one balanced meal. The number of smoothies consumed each day depends on the number of meals you substitute. It is important to listen to your body and adjust the program according to your individual needs.

Many individuals have experienced success with The Smoothie Diet: 21 Day Rapid Weight Loss Program. Users have reported significant weight loss, increased energy levels, improved digestion, and enhanced overall well-being. The program has received positive feedback for its simplicity, effectiveness, and delicious smoothie recipes. However, it is important to note that individual results may vary.

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1. What is The Smoothie Diet?

The Smoothie Diet is a 21-day rapid weight loss program that involves replacing two meals per day with smoothies. The smoothies are made with fresh fruits, vegetables, and protein powder, and they are designed to be both nutritious and delicious.

2. How does The Smoothie Diet work?

The Smoothie Diet works by helping you to reduce your calorie intake and increase your nutrient intake. Smoothies are typically low in calories and high in fiber, which can help you to feel full and satisfied. Additionally, the smoothies contain all of the essential vitamins and minerals that your body needs to function properly.

3. How much weight can I lose on The Smoothie Diet?

The amount of weight that you lose on The Smoothie Diet will vary depending on your individual circumstances. However, many people report losing 5-10 pounds in the first week of the program, and up to 20 pounds or more over the entire 21 days.

4. What are the benefits of The Smoothie Diet?

There are many benefits to The Smoothie Diet, including:

5. What are the risks of The Smoothie Diet?

The Smoothie Diet is generally safe for most people. However, it is important to talk to your doctor before starting any new diet program, especially if you have any underlying health conditions.

6. What do I eat on The Smoothie Diet?

On The Smoothie Diet, you will replace two meals per day with smoothies. The smoothies are made with fresh fruits, vegetables, and protein powder. You can find a variety of smoothie recipes on the program's website.

7. What do I do if I get hungry between meals?

If you get hungry between meals, you can eat healthy snacks such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, and yogurt. You can also drink smoothies or protein shakes.

8. What do I do when I finish The Smoothie Diet?

Once you finish The Smoothie Diet, you should gradually transition back to a normal diet. It is important to continue eating healthy foods and exercising regularly to maintain your weight loss.

9. What are some common side effects of The Smoothie Diet?

Some common side effects of The Smoothie Diet include:

These side effects are usually mild and go away on their own within a few days. If you experience any severe side effects, stop the diet and talk to your doctor.

10. Who should not follow The Smoothie Diet?

The Smoothie Diet is not recommended for pregnant women, breastfeeding women, people with diabetes, or people with any other underlying health conditions. If you have any questions about whether or not The Smoothie Diet is right for you, talk to your doctor.

The Smoothie Diet: 21 Day Rapid Weight Loss Program is a comprehensive and customizable weight loss program designed to help individuals achieve their health and fitness goals. With its focus on natural ingredients and balanced nutrition, this program offers a sustainable approach to weight loss. By incorporating nutrient-rich smoothies into your daily routine, you can experience rapid weight loss and improved overall well-being. Follow the guidelines, listen to your body, and enjoy the journey towards a healthier you.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is for informational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any weight loss program.

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